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ADVERTISEMENTS. 




Admiral Jellicoe's 
"SWAN" Pen 

"Admiral Jellicoe signed his name with my 'Swan' fountain 
pen which he highly praised ; and indeed it writes very 
smoothly and easily. Before taking leave I told the Admiral 
he would be affording me great joy if he would consent 
to accept this pen from me as a memento. 

" So when I have occasion to read about the exploits of the 
Grand Fleet I shall imagine that the orders and reports of 
the Admiral were signed with my pen. 



The above was written bv M. Nabokov, a Russian Journalist who visited 
the British Fleet recently, and is reproduced from the ■ Times" 
Russian Suf'plcm.-nt. 






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1"1 



Naval Souven'r. 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



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Souvenir of the 
GREAT NAVAL BATTLE 




L5^ 



Admiral 
3ir DaVid "beatfu 



K.C VO. 





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Naval Souvenir 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Silversmiths "^lilM^JSJl- '" H M. The Kiug. 





MODELS 
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• »ViVyi«r>N 



J^^^^^^^^^^^^.^:ar^^^^^^^jC^^ 




ADMIRAL SIR. JOHN JELLICOE 

f^- BRITAIN'S "FUTURX NELSON "- 
THE. MyXN AND HIS WORK 



WHAT was it in Sir John's personality 
that marked him out for his great 
command ? How came it that Lord 
Fisher, months before war was de- 
clared, could speak of him to the writer of these 
lines as " the future Nelson " ? His selection has 
not been due to any external dominance of char- 
acter. Indeed, the ordinary man — noting only the 
Commander-in-Chief's downward look, quick upward 
(glance, and clear outward gaze — would not discern 
in him a man who was pre-destined for the greatest 
responsibility and command which any man could 
bear. 

There have been chiefs who have won their way 
by some dominant force, and have strengthened 
command 




their position and 
forbidding expres- 
sion of character. 
That is not Jellicoe's 
way. So far as his 
great position 
depends upon 
personality — apart 
irom the expression 
of personality in 
love for the service, 
and sleepless zeal in 
mastering its mysteries 
and in gaining con- 



soine stern or 




B 



if the Service. Hi 

hold upon them is as 

Nelson's hold was on 

the officers and men of 

the Fleet in his time. 

His officers are his 

colleagues as well as 

his comrades. The 

Admiral is an assiduous 

worker, and is never so 

happy as when he can 

work some good for 

officers and men in the 

Service. The men on 

the lower deck idolize 

him. They know that 

if anvthing is to be done it will 

Sir John Jellicoe. No Admiral 

staff. It delighted him to say 

in which it was not given to 




Ailmirnl JcMicne on ' ourti 
hi% fltttf^hip che " Iron Duke' 



be done well by 
ever had a better 
of the recent batile, 
him, owing to inexor- 
able conditions of geographv and atmosphere, to 
play a decisive part, that the "glorious traditions 
liandcd down to us by generations of gallant seamen 
were most worthily upheld." 

SPEED AND THE GUN. 
Sir John Jellicoe is pre-eminently a gunnery officer, 
and has always had faith in the power and effect of 
the big gim. His broadsides and salvoes have not 
been fired in the Press. He has conlributed a 
great deal to the advancement of scientific gunnery. 
He believes, with the modern gunnery officers, that 
to get in the first blow may go half-way to wm the 
battle. He would say with Mulvaney, " I'm not 
for fightin' iverv gint for the pure joy of f.ghtin', 
but when you do, punch him first and punch him 
frequent." 

The Admiral is also a gre.at believer in speed. 
The -an mav hit, but it must first '.;ct within range. 




and speed means the power of " getting there." 
He is also a wary and far-seeing strategist. There 
is nothing of impetuosity or hot-headedness about 
him. He would say with Nelson, " Do not imagine 
I am one of those hot-brained people who fight 
at an immense disadvantage without an adequate 
object," but the object disclosed and recognised 
he would strike, taking every risk of consequences. 
He is likewise a great tactician, as he has proved 
by his success in manoeuvres, and it has been 
made known that when at last in the recent battle 
he came up with the German Fleet, he handled 
his fleet so magnificently that the Germans were 
dismayed and incontinently fled. We have heard 
of the " Nelson touch," and the historian may yet 
speak of the " Jellicoe touch," likewise. 

HIS KNOW- 
LEDGE OF 
THE ENEMY. 

The truth is that 
Sir John Jellicoe has 
lived to the full the 
life of the naval 
Service. He was one ol 
the survivors of the ill- 
iated" Victoria," being 
then a young officer, 
when she went down 
with that famous sea- 
man. Sir George Tryon, 
in the terrible collision 
with the "Camper- 
down." He has risked 
is life that the lives of 
others might be saved. 
He was severely 
wounded in the Boxer 
Expedition with the In- 
ternational Force, and 
in ihescand later, limes 
has been well liked by 
onr present enemies. 

He knows the German 
Navy very well, and is 
personally acquainted 
with some of its chiefs, 
?o that he can estimate 
their character and cer- 
tainly he would be the 
la^t man to under- 
estimate a courageous 
and eflicient adversary. 
Not oiilv docs Jellicoe know all about the Navy 
afloat. He knows its organisation and adminis- 
tration ashore. As Third Sea Lord and Controller, 
he did a giant's work at the Admiralty, urging 
the spending of money where it could pro- 
perly be spent, and doing an immense deal to 
vivify all the work of the dockyards and private 
yard's, and his opinion went a long way in the design 
of many of the ships which now serve with his flag. 
He was Second Sea Lord at a time of the utmost 
importance for all that concerns the slate and 
advancement of officers and men, and particularly 
of promotion from the lower deck. 

Sir John Jellicoe is a great believer in the maxim 
" Mens sana in corpore sano." His constant 
thought in the war has been of the health of the 
Fleet, and never has there been a flet t so healthy as 
his. He is himself the embodiment of fitness. He 
has been equally good in the flannels and between 
the goalposts, and indeed in every kind of game and 
sport, which he has also encouraged in all his com- 
mand?. 



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r»5«<l«*Vi«*«,*'V J 



Naval Souvenir. 




Naval Souvenir 



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SUKIilL^" Admiral Sir David Beatty was, on 
that famous 31st May, the spirit of England 
incarnate, the spirit of the greatest of 
Nelson's captains revived, of Troubridge 
and Sauniarez, of CoUingwood, and " the gallant, 
good Kiou," and many another of the glorious sea- 
men " who made old Fngland's fame" a hundred 
years ago. 

" He was on the topmost bridge all the while 
directing op<:rations," says one who was in the great 
tight of May ji. "They say that he gloried in the 
tight and was as eager, as active, and as delighted as 
a schoolboy in a victorious football match." That 
little penpictuic of one of the most brilliant of 
Uritain's scamen'may be accepted as accurate, for it 
agrees entire?y 
withallthatiskno\fii 
of the man who, in 
DUe of his brief 
spells ashore, made 
a speech in which 
he said : '• More than 
a y e a r ago we 
started this war in 
the Navy wiili a whoop 
of joy," and then went 
on to compl lin that 
since then because the 
ticrman had relumed 
to come out in any 
strength, they had done 
nothing but "barge 
about iu the North 
Sea." 



FOR THE 
THIRD TIME. 

The greatest naval 
battle in history up to 
iliis present writing was 
Sr David Beatty's 
tiiird and greatest 
ii;;ht with the Germans. 
His first was the fight 
in the Bight of Heligo- 
land on August 27th, 
1914, when the Ger- 
mans lost five vessels, 
while none of the 
British ships was seri- 
ously damaged. His 




ADMIRAL Sl\L DAVID BEATTY 

G/ze Sjjjrit o/Jca Power /nccu/idte^^ 




coiid vittoiy was 111 the 
Battle of the Dogger Bank on January .J4tli. 1915. 
when his battle-cruiser s<iMadron sank the BUiccher 
and severely damaged two other powerful cruisers, 
part of a German Squadron which slunk back to the 
shelter of the Kiel Canal after a futile raid on the 
East Coast. 

Throughout the whole of his career Admiral 
Beatty has been a maker of records, and it is hard 
to avoid the belief that he is about the luckiest man in 
the world. That would be a mistake, however ; for it 
is not luck, but sheer hard work and conspicuous 
merit that have brought Sir David Beatty so many 
of thi- plums of his profession. 

FRO.M STRENGTH TO STRENGTH. 

Born on January 17th, 1S71 — so that he is now only 
45 and in the prime of life— David Beatty has been 
marked out by his own qualities for the highest po'i- 
lions, almost, it might be said, since the day he 
entered the Navy as a cadet, an apprentice to the 
grim sea service of Britain. His father was Captain 
D. L. Beatty, of Bowdale, County Wexford, a 
member of one of those Irish sporting families 



that do so little for them-elves and Ireland il thuy 
remain there, and so often come to distinction in 
the greater world outside. 

It was in 1884 that young Beatty entered llie 
Navy, and six years later he was promoted to si.b- 
lieutenant, and in 1S92 to the rank of lieutenant. In 
1900, Lieut. Beatty was in command of the Barfliur, 
when the Boxer troubles broke out, and did a gallant 
action in attempting to capture two Chinese gnus. 
This brought him a captaincy — although it nearly 
ended his liie — at the early age of 29 years. Thus 
be became the youngest captain in the Royal Navy, 
and passed over the heads of 200 olTicers, just as,when 
he was advanced to commander, he passed over thi' 
heads of nearly 400 officers who were his seniors. 

AN .\DMIRAL 
OF YOUTH. 

In igio, Beatty 
was a Rear-Adiniral 
at the age of jy, 
and the only paral- 
lels to his rapid 
promotions arc to be 
found in the naval re- 
cords of the 18th cen- 
tury, when Rodney 
became a flag officer 
at 31, Keppel at 37. 
aijd Nelson at 38. 

Beatty's first laurels 
wt-re won during the 
Nile Expedition to the 
Soudan in igo6, when 
he was f niployed under 
the late Lord Kitchener, 
then Sir Herbert, in 
getting the gunboats 
over the cataracts, 
an arduous task wh;ch 
he performed with com- 
plete success. A little 
later, in the same affair, 
British gunboats were 
bombarding the Der- 
vish stronghold at 
Ha fir. Commander 
Colville, the officer in 
charge, was wounded. 
The command of the 
llotilla thereupon dc 
fought his little ship- 
skill that he received 
and was awarded the 



Admiral Beany (scconil fiijurc from rinlil' 
with Chc Tsar (in centre of picture) on board 
the '* I-ion." 

volved upon Beattv, 



with 



upon 
such gal 



antrv 



« ho 
and 



in despatches 



mention 
D.S.O. 

These are only some of the outstanding incidents 
in Sir David Beatty's stirring and strenuous career. 

MULTUM IN PARVO. 

Like Nelson, he is physically small and slight. 
although he is not battle scarred in a way that is 
visible to the eye. He is well-made, conveying an 
unmistakable sense of strength and energy. 

And it is not onlv a sense of strength and energy 
that radiates from 'Sir David Beatty's personality; 
he conveys also a feeling of confidence. When, 
immediatelv after the battle off the J utiand Bank, and 
before the 'first feeling of unjustifiable depression 
had worn off. a sailor was asked if the men of the 
Fleet still had confidence in the Admiral, his instant 
reply was : " Confidence in David ? Why, we'd 
go to hell for David." That answer, and the use of 
the familiar Christian name, show unmistakably 
how the Fleet regards the Youthful Admiral. 



Naval Sojvenir. 




II HOW BRITANNIA RULES THE WAVES. ^| 

H I 




BroadsiJe of 12-in. guas, firing. i. estruccion at 15.0j0 yard<i. 



S! 







H.M.S. Magnificent, cleared for action, showing a turrei with its 12-in. guns truinedSon the broadside. 

S 






Naval Souvenir. 












THE 






^9 



BATTLE OF THE JUTLAND BANK 



ADMIRAL SIR JOHN JELLICOE'S 

DESPATCH. 



THE FULL OFFICIAL REPORT ISSUED BY THE PRESS 

BUREAU, JULY 6, 1916. 



The Stcniary of the Admiralty communicaits the following Idler, it'hich has been addressed lo the 
Commander-in-Chief, Grand Fleet, by the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty: — 

ADMIRALTY, 4th July, 1916. 
Sir, 

My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty have considered your reports on the action off the Jutland 
Bank between the Grand Fleet under your ccmn and and the German High Sea Fled, en the 31 st May^ 
together with the report of the Vive-Admiral Ctmmanding the Battle Cruiser Fleet, and those of the various 



Fleet on this, the first 

the enemy, severely 

ample proof of the 

if every class were 

plendid testimony to 

tactical subordination -were 




engineering 



while individual initiatii 



the zeal and efficiency of 
equally conspicuous. 

.). The results of the action prove that the officers and men of the Grand Fleet have known both how to 
study the new problems with which they are confronted and how to turn their hnotcledge lo account. The 
expectations of the lountry were high; they have been well juljitled. 

4. My Lords desire me to convey to you their full apjroval of your proceedings on this occasion. 

I am. Sir, your obedient Servant, 

{Signed) W. GRAHAM GREENE. 






Aihiiiralty, 6(/i July, 1916. 

The fi)IUnviiii; Despatch has been received from 
.\dniir;il Sir John Jelhcoe, G.C.B., C.C.V.O., Com- 
mancler-iii-C"hie(, (irand Fleet, reporting- the action 
in the North Sea on 31st May, 1916 : — * 

" Iron Duke," 

24th Juno, igi6. 

Sir, — Be pleased to inform the Lords Commis- 
sioners of the Admirahv that the German High Sea 
Fleet wa^ brought to action on 31st May, 1916, to the 
westward of the Jutland Bank, off the coast of Den- 
mark. 

The ships of the Grand FU'et, in pursuance of the 
general |x>lirv of periodical sweeps through the North 
Sea, had left its bases on the previous day, in accord- 
ance with instructions issued bv me. 



In the early afternoon of Wednesday, 31st May, the 
ist and 2nd Battle-cruiser .Squadron, ist, 2nd and 3rd 
Light-cruiser .Squadrons and destroyers from the ist, 
9th, loth and i3lh Flotillas, supiiorted by the 5th 
Battle Squadron, were, in accordance with my direc- 
tions, scouting to the southward of the Battle Fltet, 
which was accompanied by the 3rd Batlle-cruiscr 
.Squadron, ist and 2nd Cruiser .Squadrons, 4th Light- 
cruiser Squ.'idron. 4th, nth and 12th Flotillas. 

The junction of the Battle Fleet with the scouting 
force after the enemy had been sighted was delayed 
owing to the southerly course steered bv our advanced 
force during the first hour after commencing their 
action with the enemy battle-cruisers. This was, of 
course, unavoidable, as had our battle-cruisers not fol- 
lowed the enemy to the southward the main fleets 
wo^ld never have been in contact. 

T!ie Battle-cruiser Fleet, gallantly led bv Vice- 
Admiral Sir David Beattv, K.C.B., M.V.O., D.S.O.. 



^SMMMffr^^MryuBt.— .< 









iVfliV// Souvenir. 



W 

*^ aiul admirablv supported by the ships of the Fifth 

Battle Squadron under Rear-Admiral Hugh Evan- 
Thomas, M.V.O., fought an action under, at times, 
disad\aiUat;eous conditions, especially in regard to 
light, in a manner that was in keeping with the best 

SS traditions of the service. 

So The following extracts from the report of Sir David 

JS Beatty give the course of events before the Battle Fleet 

S n came u])on the scene : — 

eSc "At 2. 20 p.m. reports were received from ' Galatea ' 

«* (Commodore Edwvn S. .Me.\ander-Sinclair, M.V.O., 
A.D.C., indicating' the presence of enemy vessels. The 
direction of advance was immediately altered to 
S.S.K., the course for Horn Reef, so as to place my 
force between the enemy and his base. 

ij" 3 "At 2.35 p.m. a considerable amount of smoke was! 

\ S sighted to the eastward. This made it clear that the 

S^ enemy was to the northward and eastward, and that 

^S it woiild be impossible for him to round the Horn Reef 

S^ without being brought to action. Course was accord- 

S S ingly altered to the eastward and subsequently to 

SS north-eastward, the enemy being sighted at 3.31 p.m. 

Sj^ 'J'heir force consisted of five battle-cruisers. 

Jhs " .After the first report of the enemy, the ist and 

{W 3rd Light Cruiser Squadrons changed their direction, 

A|| and, without waiting for orders, spread to the east, 

HH thereby forming a screen in advance of the Battle 

tAl Cruiser Squadrons and 5th liatlle Squadron by the 

|H1 lime we had hauled up to the course of a])])roach. 

Jy! Thev engaged enemy light-cruisers at long range. 

\b In the meantime, the 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron had 

Wl come in at high speed, and was able to take station 

M ahead of the battle-cruisers by the time we turned to 

|U] F'^S.E., the course on which we first engaged the 

pf| enemv. In this respect the work of the Light Cruiser 

IHI Squadrons was e.xcellent, and of great value, 

ky " From a report from ' Galatea ' at 2.25 p.ni. it 

V«^ was evident that the enemy force was considerable, 

^IISj and not merelv an isolated unit of light cruisers, so at 

)M\ 2.45 p.m. I ordered ' Engadine ' (Lieutenant-Com- 

C ^ mander C. G. Robinson) to send uji a seaplane and 

\\ scout to N.N.E. This order was carried out very 

^ \ quicklv. and by 3.8 p.m. a seaplane, with Flight- 

^ '^ Lieutenant F. J. Rutland R.N., as pilot, and Assistant- 

S <^ Pavmaster G. S. Trewin, R.N., as observer, was well 

Sk under way; her first reports of the enemy were rc- 

S ^ ceived in 'Engadine ' about 3.30 p.m. Owing to clouds 

« ^'J it was necessary to fly very low, and in order to 

S \ identify four enemy light-cruisers the seaplane had to 

^h fly at a height of 900 ft. within 3,000 yards of 

S \ tliem, the light-cruisers opening fire (.1 her with every 

^ \ gun that would bear. This in no way interfered 

C \ with the claritv of their reports, and both Flighl- 

V \ Lieutenant Rutland and Assistant-Paymaster Trew in 

^ ^ are to be congratulated on their achievement, which 

Y^ indicates that seaplanes under such circumstances are 

(J of dis'inct value. 

y^ " At 3.30 p.m. I increased speed to 25 knots, and 

^« formed line of battle, the 2nd Battle Cruiser Squadron 

SS] forming astern of the ist Battle Crui>er Squadron, 

&^ with destroyers of the 13th and qth Flotillas taking 

Slg station ahead. I turned^to E.S.E., slightly converg- 

S a ing on the enemy, who were now at a range of 23,000 

58 vards, and formed the ships on a line of bearing 

fiS to clear the smoke. The sth Battle Squadron, who 

N^ h,od conformed to our movements, were now bearing 

Cjl' N.N.W., 10,000 yards. The visibility at this time was 

S^ good, the sun behind us and the w^ind S.E._ Being 

aSj betw^een the enemy and his base, our situation w.-is 

§ \ both tactically and strategically good. 

ag " At 3.48 p.m. the action commenced at a range of 

S S 18,500 vards, both forces opening fire practically simul- 

Y\ taneously. Course was altered to the southward, and 

( 1 subsequently the mean direction was S.S.E., the 

^^ enemy steering a parallel course distant about 18,000 
to 14,500 vards. 

" K\. 4.8 p.m. the 5th Battle Squadron came into 
action .and ojiened fire at a range of 20,000 yards. The 
enemv's fire now seemed to slacken. The destroyer 

^ *j ' Landrail ' (Lieutenant-Commander Francis E. H. G. 

fl jj Hobart), of qth Flotilla, who was on our port beam, 

9 3 trying to take station ahead, sighted the periscope of 

\\ a submarine on her port quarter. Though causing 

?| S considerable inconvenience from smoke, the presence 

S !« of ' Lvdiard ' (Commander Malcolm L. Goldsmith) and 



\-r^i 



«•»• 






§3 



Landrail ' Luidoubtedly preserved the battje-cruisers 
from closer submarine attack. ' Nottingham ' (Cap- 
tain Charles H. Miller) also reported a submarine on 
the starboard beam. 

" Eight destroyers of the I3lh Flotilla, ' Nestor ' 
(Commander the Hon. Edward B. S. Bingham), 
• Nomad ' (Lieutenant-Commander Paul Whitfield), 
' Nicator ' (Lieutenant Jack E. .A. i\loc:itta), ' Nar- 
borough ' (Lieutenant-Commander Geoffrey Corlett), 
' Pelican '(Lieutenant-Commander Kenneth A. 
Beattie), ' Petard ' (Lieutenant-Commander Evelvn 
C. O. Thomson), ' Obdurate ' (Lieutenant-Com- 
mander Cecil H. H. Sams), ' Nerissa ' (Lieutenant- 
Commander Montague C. B. Legge), with ' Moor- 
som ' (Commander John C. Hodgson), and ' Morris ' 
(Lieutenant-Commander Edward .S. Graham), of loth 
Flotilla, ' Turbulent ' (Lieutenant-Commander Dudley 
Stuart), and "Termacant ' (Lieutenant-Commander 
Cuthbert P. Blake), of the gth Flotilla, having been 
ordered to attack the enemy with torpedoes when 
opportunity offered, moved out at 4.15 p.m., simul- 
taneously with a similar movement on the part of the 
enemy Destroyers. The attack was carried out in the 
most gallant manner, and with great determination. 
Before arriving at a favourable position to fire tor- 
jiedoes, thev intercepted an enemy force consisting of 
a light-cruiser and fifteen destroyers, k fierce engage- 
ment ensued at close quarters, with the result that 
the enemy were forced to retire on their b-ttle- 
cruisers, having "lost two destroyers sunk, and having 
their tor])ed(> attack frtistrated. Our destroyers sus- 
tained no loss in this engagement, but their attack 
on the enemy battle-cruisers was rendered less effec- 
tive, owing to some of the destroyers having dro-ied 
astern during' the ficht. Their position was, there- 
fore, luifavourable for torpedo attacl<. 

" ' Nestor,' ' Nomad,' and ' Nicator,' gallantlv led 
bv Commander the Hon. Edward B. S. Pingham. of 
' Nestor,' pressed home their attack on the batlle- 
cruisers and fired two torpedoes at them, being sub- 
jected to a heavy fire from the enemy's secondary 
armament. ' Nomad ' was badly hit, and aniarcntly 
remained stopped between the lines. Subsequently 
'Nestor' and 'Nicator' altered course to the S.E., 
and in a short time, the opposing battle-cruisers 
having turned 16 points, found themselves within 
close range of a number of enemy battleshins. 
Nothing daimted, though under a terrific fire, they 
stood on, and their position being favourable for tor- 
pedo attack fired a torpedo at the second ship of the 
enemv line at a range oF 3,000 yards. Before they 
could fire their fourth torpedo, ' Nestor ' was badly 
hit and swung to starboard, ' Nicator ' alterin.g course 
inside her to avoid collision, and thereby being pre- 
vented from firing the last torpedo. ' Nicator ' made 
good her escape, and subsequcnlly rejoined the Cap- 
tain (D), 13111 Flotilla. ' Nestor ' remained stonned, 
but was afloat when last seen. ' Moorsom ' also car- 
ried out an .ittack on the enemy's battle flee/. 

"'Petard,' 'Nerissa,' 'Turbulent,' and 'Terma- 
gant ' also pressed home their attack on tlic enemv 
battle-cruisers, firing' torpedoes after the engagement 
with enemv destroyers. ' Petard ' reports that all her 
torpedoes must have crossed the enemy's line, while 
' Nerissa ' st.-ites that one torpedo appeared to strike 
the rear ship. These destroyer attacks were indica- 
tive of the spirit pervading His Majesty's Navy, and 
were worthy of its highest traditions. I propose to 
bring to vour notice a recommendation of Commander 
Bingham and other Officers for some recognition '^f 
their conspicuous gallantrv. 

" From 4.15 to 4.43 p.m. the conflict between the 
opposing battle-cruisers was of a very fierce and reso- 
lute character. The 5th Battle-Squadron was engag- 
ing tlie enemy's rear ship, unfortunately ;it very long 
range. Our fire began to tell, the accuracy and 
rapiditv of that of the enemv depreciating consider- 
ably. .At 4.18 p.m. the third enemy ship was seen to 
be on fire. The visibility to the north-eastvard had 
become considerablv reduced, and the outline of the 
ships very indistinct. 

" At 4.38 p.m. ' Southampton ' (Commodore ^^'il- 
liam E. Goodenough, M.V.O.. A.D.C.) reported the 
enemy's Battle Fleet ahead. The destroyers were re- 
called, and at 4.42 p.m. the enemy's Battle Fleet was 



I 

4* 



\ 

I 



s=»"«5=?2«!»r^^«=sr''''-^'''»9^-^'='( 






r^*S^* 






10 



Naval Souvenir. 









5 sighted S.E. Course was altered 16 (X)ints in succes- 
§ sion to starboard, and 1 proceeded on a ncrilierly 

course to lead them towards the Battle -'"leet. The 
enemy baltlc-cruisers altrred course shortly afterwards, 
and the action tx)ntinu<-d. 'Southampton,' with the 
Jnd Light-cruiser .Squadron, held on to the southward 
to observe. 'I'hey closed to within 13,000 yards of the 
iiiemy Battle Kleet, and came under a vcrv heavy 
but ineffective fire. ' .Southampton's ' reports were 
most valuable. The 5th Battle .Squadron were now- 
dosing on an opposite course and engaging the enemy 
battle-cruisers with all guns. The position of the 
enemy Battle Kleet was communicated to them, and I 
ordered tln-m u> alter course id points. Led by Rear- 
Admiral l-lvan- Thomas, in ' B.irh.im ' (Captain .Arthur 
W. Craig), this squadron supported us brilliantly and 
effectively. 
JJ " M 4.57 p.m. the 5th Battle Squadron turned up 

8 astern of me and came under the lire of ihe leading 

6 ships of the enemy Battle Fleet. ' Fearless ' (Captain 
(I)) Charles I). Roper), with the destroyers of ist 
I'lolilla, joined the battle-cruisers, and, when speed 
admitted, tooU station ahead. ' Champion ' (Captain 
(D) James C. Farie), with ijlh Flotilla, took station 
on the 5th Battle Squadron. .'\t 5 p.m. the ist and 
3rd Light-cruiser .Squadrons, which had been follow- 
ing me on [hi> southerly course, look station on my 
starboard bow ; the 2nd Light-cruiser Squadron tooU 
station on my port quarter. 

■ The weather conditions now became unfavourable, 
our ships being silhouetted against a clear horizon to 
the westward, while the enemy were for the most pait 
ob.scured by mist, only showing up clearly at intervals. 
These conditions prevailed until we had turned their 
van at about 6 p.m. Uetween 5 and b p.m. the action 
continued on a northerly course, the range being about 
14,001:1 yards. During this time the enemy received very 
severe punishment, and one of their battle-cruisers 









H 



had three torpedoes, he closed with the light-cruiser 
previously engaged and torpedoed her. The enemy's 
Battle I'leet was then sighted, and the remaining tor- 
pedoes were fired at them and must have crossed the 
enemy's track. Damage then caused ' Onslow ' to stop. 
•■ -M 7.15 p.m. 'Defender' (Lieutenant-Commander 
Lawrence R. I'almer), whose speed had been reduced to 
lo knots, while on the disengaged side of the battle- 
cruisers, by a shell which damaged her foremost boiler, 
closed ' Onslow ' and took her in tow. Shells were 
falling all round them during this operation, which, how- 
ever, was successfully accomplished. During the heavy 
weather of the ensuing night the tow parted twice, but 
was re-secured. The two struggled on together until 
I p.m., ist June, when 'Onslow' was transferred to 
tugs. I consider the performances of these two destroyers 
to be gallant in the extreme, and I am recommending' 
Lieutenant-Commander J. C. Tovey, of ' Onslow,' and 
Lieutenant-Commander L. K. Palmer, of ' Defender,' for 
special recognition. ' Onslow ' was possibly the de.stroyer 
referred to by the Kear-Admiral Commanding 3rd Light 
Cruiser .Squadron as follows — ' Here I should like to 
bring to your notice the action of a destroyer (name 
unknown) which we passed close in a disabled condition 
soon after 6 p.m. She apparently was able to struggle 
ahead a.;ain, and made straight for the ' Derfflinger ' to 
attack her.' " 

Proceedings of Battle Fleet and Third 
Battle Cruiser Squadron. 

On receipt of the information that the enemy had been 
sighted, the British liattle Fleet, with its accompanying 
cruiser and destroyer force, proceeded at full speed on 
a S.P^. by S. course to close the Battle-cruiser Fleet. 
During the two hours that elapsed before the arrival of 
the Battle Fleet on the scene the steaming qualities of 
the older battleships were severely tested. Cireat credit 
IS due to the engine-room departments for the manner 
ill which they, as always, responded to the call, the 

1 



ll 




detached to assist ' Lngadine ' with the seaplane, rejoined 
the battle-cruiser squadrons and took station on the 
starboard (engaged] bow of • Lion ' (Captain .Alfred K. 
M. Chatfield, C. V.O.I. At 5.10 p.m. 'Moresby,' being 
2 points before the beam of the leading enemy ship, 
fired a torpedo at a ship in their line. Light minutes 
later she observed a hit with a torpedo on what was 
judged to be the sixth ship in the line. 'Moresby' 
then passed between the lines to clear the range o! 
smoke, and rejoined ' Champion.' In corroboration of 
this, "Fearless' reports having seen an enemy heavy 
ship heavily on fire at about 5.10 p.m., and shortly after- 
wards a huge cloud of smoke and steam. 

'• .\t S.35 p.m. our course was N.N.L., and the esti- 
mated position of the Battle Fleet was X. 10 W., so we 
qraduallv hauled to the north-eastward, keeping the 
range of the enemy at I4,ixx) yards. lie was gradually 
hauling to the eastward, receiving severe punishment at 
the head of his line, and probably acting on information 
received from his light-cruisers which had sighted and 
were engaged with the Third Battle-cruiser Squadron. 

■■ Possibly Zeppelins were present also. .\t 5.50 p.m. 
British cruisers were sighted on the port bow, and at 
^.Sti pm. the leading battleships of the Battle Fleet, 
bearing north 5 miles. I thereupon altered course to 
east, and proceeded at utmost speed. This brought the 
range of the enemy down to u.ooo yards. I made a 
report to you that the enemy battle-cruisers bore south- 
east. .\tthi-i time only three of the enemy battle- 
cruisers were visible, closely followed by battleships of 
the ' Kocnig' class. 

" .-Vl about 6.5 p.m. 'Onslow,' being on the engaged 
bow of ' Lion,' sighted an enemy light-cruiser at a dis- 
tance of 6,o.xj yards from us, apparently endeavouring 
to attack with torpedoes. ' Onslow ' at once closed and 
engaged her, firing 58 rounds at a range of from 4,000 
to j.noo vards, scoring a number of hits. ' Onslow ' 
then closed the enemy battle-cruisers, and orders were 
civen for all torpedoes to be fired. .\t this moment she 
was struck amidships by a heavy shell, with the result 
that only one torpedo was fired. Thinking that all his 
torpedoes had gone, the Commanding Officer proceeded 
to retire at -low speed Beini; 



informe'l ihnt hi- still 



.\dmiral Hood sent the "Chester" (Captain Robert N. 
l.awson) to investigate, and this ship engaged three or 
four enemy light-cruisers at about 5.45 p.m. The en- 
gagement lasted for about twenty minutes, during which 
period Captain Lawson handled his vessel with great 
skill against heavy odds, and, although the ship suffered 
considerably in casualties, her fighting and steaming 
qualities were unimpaired, and at about 6.5 p.m. she 
rejoined the Third Battle-cruiser Squadron. 

The Third Battle-cruiser Squadron had turned to the 
north-westward, and at 6.10 p.m. sighted our battle- 
cruisers, the squadron taking station ahead of the 
'"Lion" at 6.21 p.m. in accordance with the orders of 
the Vice-.Admiral Commanding Battle-cruiser Fleet. He 
reports as follows : — 

•• I ordered them to take station ahead, which was 
carried out magnificently, Kear-Admiral Hood bringing 
his squadron into action ahead in a most inspiring 
manner, worthy of his great naval ancestors. At 6.25 
p.m. I altered course to the F. S.E. in support of the Third 
llattle-cruiser Squadron, who were at this time only 
S,ooo yards from the enemy's leading ship. They were 
pouring a hot fire into her and caused her to turn to the 
westward of south. At the same time I made a report 
to you of the bearing and distance of the enemy battle 
fleet. 

"By 6.50 p.m. the battle-cruisers were clear of our 
leading battle squadron then bearing about N.N.VV. 
3 miles, and I ordered the Third Battle-cruiser Squadron 
to prolong the line astern and reduced to 18 knots. The 
visibility at this time was very indifferent, not more 
than 4 miles, and the enemy ships were temporarily lost 
sight of. It is interesting to note that after 6 p.m., 
although the visibility became reduced, it was un- 
doubtedly more favourable to us than to the enemy. 
.\t intervals their ships showed up clearly, enabling us 
to punish them very severely and establish a definite 
superiority over them. From the report of other ships 
and my own observation it was clear that the enemy 
suffered considerable damage, battle-cruisers and battle- 
ships alike. The head of their line was crumpled up, 
leaving battleships as targets for the majority of our 
l),ittle-cruiscrs. Before leaving us the Fifth Battle 






i 



^ 

G! 



•<♦: 



^1 

I 






11 



Naval Souvenir 






kK Squadron was also engaging 1 



^df^JTMriW^Am, 









i 



(•1 

I 

I 

If 



II 



battleships. The report of 
Rear-Admiral Evan-Thomas shows that excellent results 
were obtained, and it can be safely said that his 
magnificent squadron wrought great execution. 

'' From the report of Rear-Admiral T. D. VV. Napier, 
M.V.O., the Third Light-cruiser Squadron, which had 
maintained its station on our starboard bow well ahead 
of the enemy, at b.25 p.m. attacked with the torpedo. 
' Falmouth ' (Captain John D. Edwards) and ' Yar- 
mouth ' (Captain Thomas D. Pratt) both fired torpedoes 
at the leading enemy battle-cruiser, and it is believed 
that one torpedo hit, as a heavy underwater explosion 
was observed. The Third Light-cruiser Squadron then 
gallantly attacked the heavy ships with gunfire, with 
impunity to themselves, thereby demonstrating that the 
fighting efficiency of the enemy had been seriously im- 
paired. Rear-Admiral Napier deserves great credit for 
his determined and effective attack. ' Indomitable ' 
(Captain F'rancis W. Kennedy) reports that about this 
time one of the ' Derffiinger ' class fell out of the 
enemy's line." 

Meanwhile, at 5.45 p.m., the report of guns had 
become audible to me, and at 5.55 p.m. flashes were 
visible from ahead round to the starboard beam, 
■ although in the mist no ships could be distinguished, 
and the position of the enemy's battle fleet could not be 
determined. The difference in estimated position by 
"reckoning" between "Iron Duke" (Captain Frederic 
C. Dreyer, C.B.) and "Lion," which was inevitable 
under the circumstances, added to the uncertainty of the 
general situation. 

Shortly after 5.55 p.m. some of the cruisers ahead, 
under Rear-Adniirals Flerbert L. Heath, M.V.O., and 
Sir Robert Arbuthnot, I!t., M.V.O., were seen to be in 
action, and reports received show that " Defence," flag- 
ship (Captain Stanley V. E:ilis), and "Warrior" (Captain 
Vincent B. Molteno), of the First Cruiser Squadron, 
engaged an enemy light-cruiser at this time. She was 
subsequently observed to sink. 

At 6 p.m. " Canterbury " (Captain Percy M. R. Royds), 
which ship was in company with the Third Battle-cruiser 
Squadron, had engaged enemy light-cruisers which were 
firing heavily on the torpedo-boat destroyer "Shark" 
(Commander Loftus \V. Jones), " Acasta " (Lieutenant- 
Commander John O. Barron), and "Christopher" (Lieu- 
tenant-Commander Fairfax M. Kerr); as a result of this 
engagement the " Shark " was sunk. 

At 6 p.m. vessels, afterwards seen to be our battle- 
cruisers, were sighted by " Marlborough " bearing before 
the starboard beam of the battle fleet. 

At the same time the Vice-Admiral Commanding 
Battle-cruiser Fleet reported to me the position of the 
enemy battle-cruisers, and at 6.14 p.m. reported the 
position of the enemy battle fleet. 

At this period, when the battle fleet was meeting the 
battle-cruisers and the Fifth Battle Squadron, great care 
was necessary to ensure that our own ships were not 
mistaken for enemy vessels. 

I formed the battle fleet in line of battle on receipt of 
Sir David Beatty's report, and during deployment the 
fleets became engaged. Sir David Beatty had meanwhile 
formed the battle-cruisers ahead of the battle fleet. 

The divisions of the battle fleet were led by :— 
The Commander-in-Chief. 

Vice-Admiral Sir Cecil Burney, K.C.B., K.C.M.G. 
Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas Jerram, K.C.B. 

Sir Doveton Sturdee, Bt., K.C.B., 



Vice-Admiral 
C.V.O., C.M.G. 
Rear-Admiral 
Rear-Admiral 
Rear-Admiral 
At 6.16 p.m. 



L. Duff, C.B. 
Leveson, C.B. 
A. Gaunt, C.M.G. 

and "Warrior" were 



ob- 



Alexander 

Arthur C. 

Ernest F. 

Defence " 
served passing down between the British and German 
Battle Fleets under a very heavy fire. " Defence " dis- 
appeared, and "Warrior" passed to the rear disabled. 

It is probable that Sir Robert Arbuthnot, during his 
engagement with the enemy's light-cruisers and in his 
desire to complete their destruction, was not aware of 
the approach of the enemy's heavy ships, owing to the 
mist until he found himself in close proximity to the 
main fleet, and before he could withdraw his ships they 
were caught under a heavy fire and disabled. It is not 
known when " Black Prince " (Captain Thomas P. Bon- 
ham), of the same squadron, was sunk, but a wireless 
signal was received from her between 8 and g p.m. 

The First Battle Squadron became engaged during 
deployment, the Vice-Admiral opening fire at 6.17 p.m. 
on a battleship of the "Kaiser" class. The other Battle 
Squadrons, which had previously been firing at an 
eriemy light-crui.ser, opened fire at 6.30 p.m. on battle 
ships of the " Koenig " -'-"'■ 



class. 



At 6.6 p.m. the Rear-Admiral Commanding Fifth 
Battle Squadron, then in company with the battle- 
cruisers, had sighted the starboard wing division of the 
battle fleet on the port bow of " Barham," and the first 
intention of Kear-Admiral Evan-Thomas was to form 
ahead of the remainder of the battle fleet, but on realis- 
ing the direction of deployment he was compelled to 
form astern, a manoeuvre winch was well execuied by 
the squadron under a heavy fire from the enemy battle 
fleet. An accident to " Warspite's " steering gear caused 
her helm to become jammed temporarily and took the 
ship in the direction of the enemy's line, during which 
time she was hit several times. Clever handling enabled 
Captain ICdward M. Phillpotts to extricate his ship from 
a somewhat awkward situation. 

Owing principally to the mi^t, but partly to the smoke, 
it was possible to see only a few ships at a time in the 
enemy's battle line. Towards the van only some four or 
five ships were ever visible at once. More could be seen 
from the rear squadron, but never more than eight to 
twelve. 

The action between the battle fleets lasted intermit- 
tently from 6.17 p.m. to 8.20 p.m. at ranges between 
g.ooo yards and 12,000 yards, during which time the 
British Fleet made alterations of course from S.E. by E. 
to W. in the endeavour to close. The enemy constantly 
turned away and opened the range under cover of 
destroyer attacks and smoke screens as the effect of the 
British fire was felt, and the alterations of course had the 
effect of bringing the British F'leet (which commenced the 
action in a position of advantage on the bow of the 
enemy) to a quarterly bearing from the enemy battle line, 
but at the same time placed us between the enemy and 
his bases. 

At 6.55 p.m. "Iron Duke" passed the wreck of "In- 
vincible" (Captain Arthur L. Cay), with "Badger" 
(Commander C. A. Fremantle) standing by. 

During the somewhat brief periods that the ships of the 
High Sea Fleet were visible through the mist, the heavy 
and effective fire kept up by the battleships and battle- 
cruisers of the Grand F'leet caused me much satisfaction, 
and the enemy vessels were seen to be constantly hit, 
some being observed to haul out of the line and at least 
one to sink. The enemy's return fire at this period was 
not effective, and the damage caused to our ships was 
insignificant. 

The Battle-Cruisers in the Van. 

Sir David Beatty reports : — 

"At 7.6 p.m. I received a signal from you that the 
course of the Fleet was south. Subsequently signals 
were received up to 8.46 p.m. showing that the course of 
the Battle Fleet was to the south-westward. 

"Between 7 and 7.12 p.m. we hauled round gradually 
to S.W. by S. to regain touch with the enemy, and at 
7.14 p.m. again sighted them at a range of about 15,000 
yards. The ships sighted at this time were two battle- 
cruisers and two battleships, apparently of the ' Koenig ' 
class. No doubt more continued the line to the north- 
ward, but that was all that could be seen. The visibilitv 
having improved considerably as the sun descended below 
the clouds, we re-engaged at 7.17 p.m. and increased 
speed to 22 knots. At 7.32 p.m. my course was S.W., 
speed 18 knots, the leading enemy battleship bearing 
N.W. by W. Again, after a very short time, the enemy 
showed signs of punishment, one ship being on fire, while 
another appeared to drop right astern. The destroyers at 
the head of the enemy's line emitted volumes of grey 
smoke, covering their capital ships as with a pall, under 
cover of which they turned away, and at 7.45 p.m. we lost 
sight of them. 

At 7.58 p.m. I ordered the First and Third Light- 
cruiser Squadrons to sweep to the westward and locate the 
head of the enemy's line, and at S.20 p.m. we altered 
course to west in support. We soon located two battle- 
cruisers and battleships, and were heavily engaged at 
a short range of about 10,000 yards. The leading ship 
was hit repeatedly by ' Lion,' and turned away eight 
points, emitting very high flames and with a heavy list 
to port. ' Princess Royal ' set fire to a three-funnelled 
battleship. ' New Zealand ' (Captain John F. E. Green) 
and 'Indomitable' report that the third ship, which they 
both engaged, hauled out of the line, heeling over and on 
fire. The mist which now came down enveloped them, 
and ' F'almouth ' reported they were last seen at 8.38 p.m. 
steaming to the westward. 

"At 8.40 p.m. all our battle-cruisers felt a heavy shock 
as if struck by a mine or torpedo, or possibly sunken 
wreckage. As, however, examination of the bottoms re- 
veals no sign of such an occurrence, it is assumed that 
it indicated the blowing up of a great vessel 



^^' 

s^ 



I 



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i^-cw-jSii-bsvr. 



sii^jfj>:^j,'j'. 






vwj^<s;<^<ri*5(w:*^r*" 






12 



Naval Souvenir. 



" 1 ountinufj uii a buuth-we^terly i nurse with my liyht 
cruisers spread until 9.^4 p.m. Nothing further being 
sighted, 1 assumed that the enemy were to the north- 
westward, and that we had established ourselves well 
between him and his base. 'Minotaur' (Captain Arthur 
IJ S. H. D'Aethi was at this time bearing north 5 miles, 
and I asked her the position of the leading battle squad- 
I in of the Battle l-'leet. ller reply was that it was not in 
^n;ht, but was last seen bearing N.N.I". I kept you in- 



Z»Brx<X^yxr^ 



(urnied of my position, course, and speed, also of the ' Charles E. l.e Mesurier, occupied a position in the van 



bearing of the enemy. 

" In view of the gathering darkness, and the fact that 
■tir strategical position was such as to make it appear 

• ertain that we should locate the enemy at daylight under 
most favourable circumstances, I did not consider it 
desirable or proper to close the enemy Battle Kleet 
luring the dark hours. I therefore concluded that I 
should be carrying out your wishes by turning to the 

ourse of the Fleet, reporting to you that I had done so." 

Details of Battle-Fleet Action. 

As was anticipated, the German I'leet appeared to 
rely very much on torpedo attacks, which were favoured 
by the low visibility and by the fart that we had arrived 
111 the position of a 'following" or "chasing" fleet. A 
large number of torpedoes were apparently fired, but only 
one took effect (on "Marlborough"), and even in this 
rase the ship was able to remain in the line and to con- 
tinue the action. The enemy's efforts to keep out of 
effective gun range were aided by the weather conditions, 
which were ideal for the purpose. Two separate destroyer 
attacks were made by the enemy. 

The I'irst Battle Squadron, under Vice-.'Vdmiral Sir 
I'ecil liurney, came into action at 6.17 p.m. with the 
rnemy's Third Battle Squadron, at a range of about 
ii.cxxj yards, and administered severe punishment, both 
tj the battleships and to the battle-cruisers and light- 
cruisers, which were also engaged. The fire of " Marl- 
borough " (Captain C.eorge I". Ross) was particularly 
r.ipid and effective. This ship commenced at 6.t7 p.m. 
by firing seven salvoes at a ship of the "Kaiser" class, 
then engaged a cruiser, and again a battleship, and at 
11.54 she was hit by a torpedo and took up a considerable 
list to starboard, but reopened at 7.3 p.m. at a 

• ruiser, and at 7.12 p.m. fired fourteen rapid salvoes at a 
■•hip of the " Koenig ' class, hitting her frequently until 
■-he turned out of the line. The manner in which this 
effective fire was kept up in spite of the disadvantages 
due to the injury caused by the torpedo was most 
creditable to the ship and a very fine example to the 
squadron. 

The range decreased during the course of the action 
to 9,000 yards. The I'irst Battle Squadron received more 
of the enemy's return fire than the remainder of the 
battle fleet, with the exception of the Fifth Battle 
Squadron. "Colossus" (Captain Alfred D. P. R. 
round) was hit, but was not seriously damaged, and 
'ther ships were straddled with fair frequency. 

In the Fourth Battle Squadron — in which squadron 
my flagship "Iron Duke" was placed — Vice-Admiral Sir 
Doveton Sturdee leading one of the divisions — the enemy 
ingaged was the squadron consisting of " Koenig " and 

Kaiser" class and some of the battle-cruisers, as well 
.Ts disabled cruisers and light-cruisers. The mist 
rendered range-taking a difficult matter, but the fire of 
the squadron was effective. " Iron Duke," having pre- 
V iously fired at a light-cruiser between the lines, opened 
lire at 6.30 p.m. on a battleship of the "Koenig" class 
.it a range of li.ooo yards. The latter was very quickly 
straddled, and hitting commenced at the second salvo, 
:ind only ceased when the target ship turned away. The 
rapidity with which hitting was established was most 
I reditable to the excellent gunnery organisation of the 
flagship, so ably commanded by my Flag Captain, 
I aptain Frederic C. Drcyer. 

The fire of other ships of the .squadron was principally 
directed at enemy battle-cruisers and cruisers as they 
appeared out of the mist. Hits were observed to take 
.fleet on several ships. 

The ships of the Second Battle Squadron, under Vice- 
.\<lmiral Sir Thomas Jerram, were in action with vessels 
iif the "Kaiser" or "Koenig" classes between 6.30 and 
-jn p.m., and fired !»lso at an enemy battle-cruiser which 
iiad dropped back apparently severely damaged. 

During the action between the battle fleets the Second 
Cruiser Squadron, ably commanded by Rear-Admiral 
Herbert I.. Heath, M.V.O., with the addition of "Duke 
i.f Kdinburgh " (Captain Henry Blackett) of the First 
Cruiser Squadron, occupied a position at the van, and 
acted as a connecting link between the battle fleet and 
the battle-cruiser fleet This squadron, although it 



c5 



carried out useful work, did not have an opportunity 
of coming into action. 

The attached cruisers " Boadicea " (Captain Louis C. 
S. WooUcombe, M.V.O.), "Active" (Captain Percy 
Withers), "Blanche" (Captain John M. Casement), and 
• Bellona " (Captain Arthur B. S. Dutton) carried out 
their duties as repeating-ships with remarkable rapidity 
and accuracy under difficult conditions. 

The Fourth Light-cruiser Squadron, under Commodore 



89 



until ordered to attack enemy destroyers at 7.^0 p.m., 
and again at 8.18 p.m., when they supported the 
ICleventh Flotilla, which had moved out under Commo- 
dore James R. P. Hawksley, M.V.O., to attack. On 
each occasion the Fourth Light-cruiser Squadron was 
very well handled by Commodore Le Mesurier, his cap- 
tains giving him excellent support, and their object was 
attained, although with some loss in the second attack, 
when the ships came under the heavy fire of the enemy 
battle fleet at between 6,500 and 8,000 yards. The 
"Calliope ' (Commodore Le Mesurier) was hit several 
times, but did not sustain serious damage, although, I 
regret to say, she had several casualties. The light- 
cruisers attacked the enemy's battleships with torpedoes 
at this time, and an explosion on board a ship of the 
"Kaiser " class was seen at 8.40 p.m. 

During these destroyer attacks four enemy torpedo- 
boat destroyers were sunk by the gun-fire of battleships, 
light-cruisers, and destroyers. 

After the arrival of the British Battle Fleet the enemy's 
tactics were of a nature generally to avoid further action, 
in which they were favoured by the conditions of 
visibility. 

Night Dispositions. 

At 9 p.m the enemy was entirely out of sight, and the 
threat of torpedo-boat destroyer attacks during the 
rapidly approaching darkness made it necessary for me 
to dispose the fleet for the night, with a view to its 
safety from such attacks, whilst providing for a renewal 
of action at daylight, I accordingly manoeuvred to 
remain between the enemy and his bases, placing our 
flotillas in a position in which they would afford pro- 
tection to the fleet from destroyer attack, and at the 
same time be favourably situated for attacking the 
enemy's heavy ships. 

Night Attacks by Flotillas. 

During the night the British heavy ships were not 
attacked, but the Fourth, Eleventh, and Twelfth 
Flotillas, under Commodore llawkesley and Captains 
Charles J. Wintour and Anselan J. B. Stirling, delivered 
a series of very gajlant and successful attacks on the 
enemy, causing him heavy losses. 

It was during these attacks that severe losses in the 
Fourth Flotilla occurred, including that of " Tipperary, ' 
with the gallant leader of the Flotilla, Captain Wintour. 
He had brought his flotilla to a high pitch of perfection, 
and although suffering severely from the fire of the 
enemy, a heavy toll of enemy vessels was taken, and 
many gallant actions were performed by the flotilla. 

Two torpedoes were seen to take effect on enemy 
vessels as the result of the attacks of the Fourth Flotilla, 
one being from ".Spitfire" (Lieutenant-Commander Clar- 
ence W. E. Trelawny), and the other from either 
"Ardent" (Lieutenant-Commander Arthur Marsden), 
"Ambuscade" (Lieutenant-Commander Gordon A. 
Coles), or "Garland"' (Lieutenant-Commander Reginald 
S. (".offi. 

The attack carried out by the Twelfth Flotilla (Captain 
Anselan J. B. Stirling) was admirably executed. The 
squadron attacked, which consisted of six large vessels, 
besides light-cruisers, and comprised vessels of the 
" Kaiser " class, was taken by surprise. A large number 
of torpedoes was fired, including some at the second and 
third ships in the line ; those fired at the third ship took 
effect, and she was observed to blow up. A second 
attack made twenty minutes later by "Msenad" (Com- 
mander John P. Champion I on the five vessels still 
remaining, resulted in the fourth ship in the line being 
also hit. 

The destroyers were under a heavy fire from the light- 
cruisers on reaching the rear of the line, but the "On- 
slaught" (Lieutenant-Commander Arthur G. Onslow, 
D.S.C.) was the only vessel which received any material 
injuries. In the "Onslaught" Sub-Lieutenant Harry 
W. A. Kemmis, assisted by Midshipman Reginald G. 
Arnot, R.N.K., the only executive officers not disabled, 
brought the ship successfully out of action and reached 
her home port. 

During the att.ick carried out by the Eleventh Flotilla, 



8 









Ji\ 



Naval Souvenir. 



iffff/y^MwmM'J'Mrjr^jt^^f^vM-^ 



u 



a 
I 






\ 






I 
I 



! 



if 



"Castor" (Commodore James R. P. Hawksley) leading 
the flotilla, engaged and sank an enemy torpedo-boat- 
destroyer at point-blank range. 

Sir David Beatty reports : — 

" The Thirteenth Flotilla, under the command of Cap- 
tain James U. Farie, in ' Champion,' took station astern 
of the battle fleet for the night. At 0.30 a.m. on Thurs- 
day, 1st June, a large vessel crossed the rear of the flotilla 
at high speed. She passed close to ' Petard ' and ' Tur- 
bulent,' switched on searchlights and opened a heavy 
fire, which disabled ' Turbulent.' At 3.30 a.m. ' Cham- 
pion ' was engaged for a few minutes with four enemy 
destroyers. ' Moresby ' reports four ships of ' Deutsch- 
land' class sighted at 2.35 a.m., at whom she fired one 
torpedo. Two minutes later an explosion was felt by 
' Moresby ' and ' Obdurate.' 

"'Fearless' and the ist Flotilla were very usefully 
employed as a submarine screen during the earlier part 
of the 31st May. At 6.10 p.m., when joining the Battle 
Fleet, ' Fearless ' was unable to follow the battle 
cruisers without fouling the battleships, and therefore 
took station at the rear of the line. She sighted during 
the night a battleship of the ' Kaiser ' class steaming fast 
and entirely alone. She was not able to engage her, but 
believes she was attacked by destroyers further astern. 
A heavy explosion was observed astern not long after." 

There were many gallant deeds performed by the de- 
stroyer flotillas ; they surpassed the very highest expecta- 
tions that I had formed of them. 

Apart from the proceedings of the flotillas, the Second 
Light-cruiser Squadron in the rear of the battle fleet was 
in close action for about 15 minutes at 10.20 p.m 




with 



a squadron comprising one enemy cruiser and four light- 
cruisers, during which period " Southampton " and 
"Dublin" (Captain Albert C. Scott) suffered rather 
heavy casualties, although their steaming and fighting 
qualities were not impaired. The return fire of the 
squadron appeared to be very effective. 

" Abdiel," ablv commanded by Commander Berwick 
Curtis, carried out her duties with the success which has 
always characterised her work. 

Proceedings on June 1. 

At daylight, i-st June, the battle fleet, being then to the 
southward and westward of the Horn Keef, turned to the 
northward in search of enemy vessels and for the purpose 
of collecting our own cruisers and torpedo-boat de- 
stroyers. At 2.30 a.m. Vice-Admiral Sir Cecil Burney 
transferred his flag from "Marlborough" to "Revenge," 
as the former ship had some difliculty in keeping up the 
spted of the squadron. "Marlborough" was detached 
by my direction to a base, successfully driving off an 
enemy submarine attack en route. The visibility early 
on ist June (three to four miles) was less than on 31st 
May, and the torpedo-boat destroyers, being out of visual 
touch, did not rejoin until g a.m. The British Fleet re- 
mained in the proximity of the battlefield and near the 
line of approach to German ports until n a.m. on 1st 
June, in spite of the disadvantage of long distances from 
fleet bases and the danger incurred in waters adjacent 
to enemy coasts from submarines and torpedo craft. 
The enemy, however, made no sign, and I was reluct- 
antly compelled to the conclusion that the High Sea 
Fleet had returned into port. Subsequent events proved 
this assumption to have been correct. Our position rnust 
have been known to the enemy, as at 4 a.m. the Fleet 
engaged a Zeppelin for about five minutes, during which 
time she had ample opportunity to note and subsequently 
report the position and course of the British Fleet. 

The waters from the latitude of the Horn Reef to the 
scene of the action were thoroughly searched, and some 
survivors from the destroyers "Ardent" (Lieutenant- 
Commander Arthur Marsden), "Fortune" (Lieutenant- 
Commander Frank G. Terry), and " Tipperary " (Cap- 
tain (D) Charles J. Wintour), were picked up, and the 
" Sparrowhawk " (Lieutenant-Commander Sydney Hop- 
kins), which had been in collision and was no longer 
seaworthy, was sunk after her crew had been taken off. 
A large amount of wreckage was seen, but no enemy 
ships, and at 1.15 p.m., it being evident that the German 
Fleet had succeeded in returning to port, course was 
shaped for our bases, which were reached without further 
incident on Friday, 2nd June. A cruiser squadron was 
detached to search for " Warrior," which vessel had been 
abandoned whilst in tow of " Engadine " on her way to 
the base owing to bad weather setting in and the vessel 
becoming unseaworthy, but no trace of her was dis- 
covered, and a further subsequent search by a light- 
cruiser squadron having failed to locate her, it is evident 
that she foundered. 



Sir David Beatty reports in regard to the " Engadine " 
as follows : — 

" The work of ' Engadine ' appears to have been most 
praiseworthy throughout, and of great value. Lieu- 
tenant-Commander C. G. Robinson deserves great credit 
for the skilful and seanianlike manner in which he 
handled his ship. He actually towed ' Warrior ' for 75 
miles between 8.40 p.m., 31st May, and 7.15 a.m., 1st 
June, and was instrumental in saving the lives of her 
ship's company." 

I fully endorse his remarks. 

The Fleet fuelled and replenished with ammunition, 
and at 9.30 p.m. on 2nd June was reported ready for 
further action. 

Losses. 

The conditions of low visibility under which the day 
action took place and the approach of darkness enhance 
the difficulty of giving an accurate report of the damage 
inflicted or the names cjf the ships sunk by our forces, 
but after a most careful examination of the evidence of 
all officers, who testified to seeing enemy vessels actually 
sink, and personal interviews with a large number of 
these ofiicers, I am of opinion that the list shown in the 
enclosure gives the minimum in regard to numbers, 
though it is possibly not entirely accurate as regards the 
particular class of vessel, especially those which were 
sunk during the night attacks. In addition to the vessels 
sunk, it is unquestionable that many other ships were 
very seriously damaged by gunfire and by torpedo attack. 

I deeply regret to report the loss of H.M. ships 
"Queen Mary," "Indefatigable," "Invincible," "De- 
fence," "Black Prince," "Warrior," and of H.M. 
T.B.D.'s "Tipperary," "Ardent," "Fortune," "Shark," 
"Sparrowhawk," "Nestor," "Nomad," and "Turbu- 
lent," and still more do I regret the resultant heavy loss 
of life. The death of such gallant and distinguished 
offi-ers as Rear-Admiral Sir Robert Arbuthnot, Bart., 
l<e_. -Admiral the Hon. Horace Hood, Captain Charles 
F. Sowerby, Captain Cecil L Prowse, Captain Arthur 
L. Cay, Captain Thomas P. Bonham, Captain Charles 
J. Wintour. and Captain Stanley V. Ellis, and those who 
perished with them, is a serious loss to the Navy and 
to the country. They led officers and men who were 
equally gallant, and whose death is mourned by their 
comrades in the Grand Fleet. They fell doing their duty 
nobly, a death which they would have been the first to 
desire. 

The enemy fought with the gallantry that was expected 
of him. We particularly admired the conduct of those 
on board a disabled German light-cruiser which passed 
down the British line shortly after deployment, under a 
heavy fire, which was returned by the only gun left in 
action. 

The Personnel of the Fleet. 

The conduct of officers and men throughout the day 
and night actions was entirely beyond praise. No words 
of mine could do them justice. On all sides it is re- 
ported to me that the glorious traditions of the past 
were most worthily upheld — whether in heavy ships, 
cruisers, light-cruisers, or destroyers — the same admir- 
able spirit prevailed. OflScers and men were cool and 
determined, with a cheeriness that would have carried 
them through anything. The heroism of the wounded 
was the admiration of all. 

I cannot adequately express the pride with which the 
spirit of the Fleet filled me. 

Details of the work of the various ships during action 
have now been given. It must never be forgotten, how- 
ever, that the prelude to action is the work of the engine- 
room department, and that during action the oflicers and 
men of that department perform their most important 
duties without the incentive which a knowledge of the 
course of the action gives to those on deck. The quali- 
ties of discipline and endurance are taxed to the utmost 
under these conditions, and they were, as always, rnost 
fully maintained throughout the operations under review. 
Several ships attained speeds that had never before been 
reached, thus showing very clearly their high state of 
steaming efficiency. Failures in material were conspicu- 
ous by their absence, and several instances are reported 
of magnificent work on the part of the engine-room 
departments of injured ships. 

The artisan ratings also carried out much valuable 
work during and after the action ; they could not have 

done better. , t-, • j 

The work of the medical officers of the Fleet, carried 

out very largely under the most difficult conditions, was 

entirely admirable and invaluable. Lacking in many 















14 



Naval Souvenir. 






iS cases all the essentials for performing critical operations, 

\V and with their staff seriously depleted by casualties, 

jC ihey worked untiringly and with the greatest success. 

BS I'l them we owe a deep debt of gratitude. 

^^ It will be seen thai the hardest fighting fell to the lot 

SV, of the Hattle-cruiscr Meet (the units of which were less 

P\ heavily armoured than their opponents), the lifth Haitle 

kA .Squadron, the I-irst Cruiser Squadron, l-'ourth l.ight- 

jSJ cruiser Squadron, and the Flotillas. This was inevitable 
aj[ under the conditions, and the squadrons and flotillas 
C\ mentioned as well as the individual vessels composing 
S J them were handled with conspicuous ability, as were 
*^ also the ist, 2nd, and 4th Squadrons of the Uattle l-'leet 
KS and the jnd Cruiser Squadron. 

[J I <lgsire to place on record my high appreciation of the 

V-^ manner in which all the vessels were handled. The 
conditions were such as to call for great skill and abi.Ly, 
quick judgment and decisions, and this was conspicuous 
throughout the day. 

I beg also to draw special attention to the services 
rendered by Vice-Admiral Sir Cecil Burney (Second in 
Command of the Crand Meet), Vice-Admiral Sir Thomas 
Jerram, \'ice-Admiral Sir Doveton Sturdee, Uear-Admiral 
y\ Hugh Kvan-Thomas, Hear-Admiral Alexander L. Duff, 
flS Kear-Admiral Arthur C. Leveson, and Uear-Admiral 
|||k lOrnest !•'. A. Caunt, commanding squadrons or divisions 
in the Uattle Fleet. They acted throughout with skill 
and judgment. Sir Cecil Burneys squadron, owing to 
Its position, was able to see more of the enemy Battle 
I'leet than the other battle squadrons, and under a 
leader who has rendered me most valuable and loyal 
assistance at all times the squadron did excellent work. 
I'he magnificent squadron commanded by Kear-Admiral 
Evan-Thomas formed a support of great value to Sir 
David Beatty during the afternoon, and was brought into 
action in lear of the Battle Fleet in the most judicious 
manner in the evening. 

Sir David Heatty once again showed his fine qualities 
of gallant leadership, firm determination, and correct 
strategic insight, lie appreciated the situations at once 



unlimited work, have all been of the greatest assistance to ^^ 
me, and have relieved me of much of the anxiety in- 
separable from the conduct of the Fleet during the war 
In^the stages leading up to the Fleet Action and during 



I 



P 
I 



and after the action he was always at hand to assist 
and his judgment was never at fault. I owe him more 
than I can say. 

II»Vilv'''r'M'r-^^"v.''%-"' '^"' ^''° '^ Commodore Lionel 
ml^?;K I' ""* ,•- ""J"^'" °' "'^ l''^"^'- ^^ho also assists 

me in the working of the fleet at sea, and to whose good 

flef f wf ? n r^""^! ''"' •'"^ "P''^"-^' ^'"> «hich the 
return f ." k"* and replenished with ammunition on 
return to its bases. lie was of much assistance to me 
during the action. 

Commander Charles M. Forbes, my flag-commander 
and Commander Roger .M. Bellairs, of my Staff, ploUe ! 
he movements of the two fleets with rapidity aAd acc" 

server aloft throughout the action, and his 
of v-alue. These officers carried out their 
much efficiency during the action 

ra,!,ditv"hv''"V''"''' r''";'^ ^''^ smoothness and 
rapidity by Commander Alexander R. W Woods 
assisted by the other signal officers, and all ships re! 
sponded remarkably well under difficult conditions '^Th. 
signal departments in all ships deserve great credit for 
their work. My Flag-Lieutenant, IJeutenam-Com 
■ ;l",h "\"' iMUherbert, was al.so of much service 
to me throughout the action. 

nfTh^fli*'? state of efficiency of the W/T arrangements 
of^the fleet, and the facility with which they were worked 
during 



acted as ob- 

services were 

duties with 



before 
monv to 



and 



ere worked 
a great testi- 
out by Corn- 
ices have been 



after the action, is 
the indefatigable work carried 
mander Richard I.. Nicholson. His serv 
invaluable throughout the war. 

A special word of praise is due to th 
mcnts in all ships. 

My Secretaries, l' leet-1'aymasters Hamnet H. Share 
r.B.. and Victor H. T. Weekes, recorded with accurac^ 



le wireless depart- 




frevylyan D. \V. Napi 

enough, and Commodore F^dwyn S. Alexander-Sinclair. 

lie states that on every occasion these officers anticipated 

his wishes and used their forces to the best possible 

effect. 

I most fully endorse all his remarks, and I forward 

also the following extract from his report regarding the 

valuable services rendered by his staff : — 
" I desire to record and bring to your notice the great 

assistance that I received on a day of great anxiety and 

strain from my Chief of the Staff, Captain Rudolf W. 

Bentinck, whose good judgment was of the greatest help. 

He was a tower of strength. My FTag-Commander, the 

Iliin. Reginald A. R. I'lunkett, was most valuable in 
b'ierving the effect of our fire, thereby enabling me to 

t.ike advantage of the enemy's discomfiture ; my Secre- 
tary, Frank T. Spickernell, who made accurate notes of 
events as they occurred, which proved of the utmost 
value in keepine the situation clearly before me; my 
Flag-I.ieutenant-Commander Ralph F. Seymour, who 
maintained efficient communications under the most 
difficult circumstances despite the fact that his signalling 
appliances were continually shot away. .Ml these officers 
carried out their duties with great coolness on the 
manoeuvring platform, where they were fully exposed to 
the enemy's fire." 

1 cannot close this despatch without recording the 
brilliant work of mv Chief r>f the Staff, Vice-Admiral Sir 
Charles Madden. K.C.B.. C.V.O. Throughout a period 
of .11 months of war his services have been of inestim- 
able value. His good judgment, his long experience in 
fleets, special gift for organisation, and his capacity (or 



Kncmv 



\'essels put out of 
ist June, 1916. 



action, 31st May^ 



Battleships or Battle-Cruisers. 

2 Battleships, -Dreadnought" type. 
I Battleship, •• Deutschland " type. 
(Seen to sink.) 
I Battle-cruiser. 

(Sunk— •■ I.utzow" admitted bv Germans.) 
I Battleship, •■ Dreadnought " type. 
I Battle-cruiser. 

(Seen to be so severely damaged as to render it extremely 
doubtful if they could reach port.) 

Light Cruisers. 

5 Light cruisers. 

(Seen to sink ; one of them had the appearance of being 
a larger type, and might have been a battleship.) 

Torpedo-Boat Destroyers. 

Torpedo-boat Destroyers. 

(Seen to sink.) 
3 Torpedo-boat Destroyers. 

(Seen to be so severely 'damaged as to render it extremely 
doubtful if they could reach port.) 



Sub 



__marines. 

I .Submarine. 

(Sunk.) 
• All time; given in this report a-e Greenwich mean time. 



[The fxyrtions of AJ'tiiral Bcatty's reftort to Sir John Jrllicoe. uhich are tiot quoted by the latter in the above 
ilespalch. are given in full on page IS. — Ed. " War Budget " Souvenir.] 



w.^,£^e^^j^^^^yjs^ • 






13 






Naval Souvenir. 




Com. 


R. H. 0. Townsend. 


i^PK^ 


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jfe-l^l 


R 


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•^ / 




"^^■^^ - 




1 ^: 



Li&ut.-Com. R. L. Clayton. 




Enjr-Com. Hubert J. Clceg. 




Engr.-Com. C. E. A. Crictiton. 



H.M.S. QUEEN MARY. 

Cai'Taix Cecil Ikev Pitowse served during the 
Egyptian war, 1882, and was awarded the Egyptian 
medal and the Khedive's Bronze Star. He became 
first lieutenant of H.M.S. Racoon, and in 1895 was 
awarded the General Africa medal. He was also 
present at the bombardment and capture of the 
Sultan of Zanzibar's palace in August, 1896. 

CoMMANDEK RoBEKT Hakman Llevvelvn, aged 
ji, only surviving son of Sii' Robert Llewelyn, served 
in H.M.S. KamilJies, flagship of Lord Charles Beres- 
ford, in the Mediterranean. He served in H.M.S. 
Hindustan in igii and in H.M.S. St. Vincent in 1912 
as gunnery lieutenant. 

Commander Sik Charees Rodney Blane was 
killed by a shell exp osion before the vessel sank. 
Succeeded his uncle as fourth baronet in igii. He 
was awarded the It-tlian Order of St. Maurice and 
St. Lazarus for services at the time of the Messina 
earthquake. His two younger brothers were both in 
the Army and have both lost their lives in the war. 

Commander Harrv L. L. Pennell, .served in 
Ihe British Antarctic Expedition, 1910-1913, and was 
sp'icially promoted to coiniiiander in June, 1913. 

Lieutenant John Hani.v, was wounded early in 
(he war, but recovered suHicieiitly to attend his 
Ijrother's wedding as best man, early last year. 

Lieutenant Victor Alexander Evvart, who 
was promoted to that rank at the end of August, igi^, 
was through hi-i mother a nephew of Lord Anca-ter. 
He was only 23 years of age. 

Engineer Lieutenant ■ Commander John 
Matthew Murray when at the K.N. College was 
instructor to the Prince of Wales. 

Major Gerald C. Rooney served with the 
expeditionary forces in China during the war, acting 
as Adjutant to the Royal Marmes Battalion in 
.•\ugust, 1900, and recei\ing a medal. 

SUB-LlEUTENANT ALGERNON M. PliRCV, l^.N.R., 

was the son of Lord Algernon Percy, and nephew of 
the Duke of Northumberland. 

.Acting Suh-Lieutenant Neville Si;ymour, aged 
20, excelled in sport, and possessed numerous cups 
and other prizes. 

Fleet Surgeon E. E. Loub ser\ed in H.M.S. 
Thrush in the Delagoa Bay blockade and in tlie 
Gambia River Expedition in igoi. He recei\ed 
the General African medal, with .\ro clasp. 

MiDSHif.MAN Denis Gerald Ambrose Goddard, 
although only 18 years of age, had seen service in the 
Persian Gulf, the Suez Canal, and the Dardanelles. 

Midshipman Thomas Mostvn Field, only son of 
Admiral Sir Mostyn and Lady Field, was appointed 
to H.M.S. Queen Mary in January last. 



Rear . Ad.miral 
THE Hon. Horace 
Lambert Alexan- 
der Hood, C.B., 
M.V.O., D.S.O, 
third son of the 

fourth Viscount Hood and biother of the present 
peer, attained flag rank in May, 1913. He served 
with great distinction in the Sudan operations, 
and has been Naval Attache in Washington; in 
command of the Royal Naval College, Osborne; 
and Naval Secretary to the First Lord of the 
Admiralty. In October and November, 1914, he was 
in command of the monitors and other vessels which 
bombarded the German works on the Belgian coast. 

Captain Arthur Lindesav Cay, formerly in 
command of H.M.S. Achilles, entered the Navy as a 
cadet in 1882. He took four firsts for his promotion 
to lieutenant in i8gi, and attained the rank of 
captain in 1907. 

Commander Richakd H. D. Townsend was 
appointed to the Invincible at the beginning of the 
war. He became flag-lieutenant in the Home Fleet 
in 1907. He took part in the defeat of Ihd German 
squadron off the Falklands. 

Commander Lionel Henry Shore, navigating 
officer, was the second son of Commander the 
Hon. Henry Noel Shore, and a nephew of Lord 
Teignmouth. He served in China in 1920 as aide- 
decamp to the late .•\dmiral (then Commander) 
Cradock, and was mentioned in despatches. 

Lieutenant Charles D. Fisher, R.N.V.R., the 
Oxford tutor, brother of Mr. H. A. L. Fisher, of 
Sheffield University, was a great cricketer. He 
served with the R.A.M.C. in France during the early 
part of the war, then ol.taiiied a commission in the 
R.N.V.R. 

L I E U T E N a N T - C O M M A N D E R E I) W A R D S M V T H 

OsBOURNEserved in the foil iwing ships : — Cambrian, 
Lee and Arab, t.b. No. loi, in command, Diana, 
Lord Nelson, and Viviil. He took part in the battle 
of the Bight 01 Heligoland in August, 1914, and in 
the battle of the b'alkland Isles on November 9, 1914. 

Lieutenant-Commander John Cyril F. Borrett, 
youngest son of Major-General H. G. Borrett, C.B., 
was ^i years old. He was appointed to the 
Invincible in August, 1914. 

Lieutenant Thomas 
Fleming, aged 22, served 
1911-13, afterwards in the 
Brisk and Active. 



Frederick Stewart 
in the Indefatigable, 
Fish, Vigilant, 



Flying 




Lieut. 'Com. uuaiey stuarl 



Naual Souvenir. 




H.M S. INDK- 
FATIGABLE. 

Captain Charles 
1". So\vi:uRV was 
Iroin igoS to igi2 
Naval Attache at 
Washiiif^toM. He 
attaiiii'd the rank 
of captain in KJ05. 
Commandlk Henkv I^unkst Uigby Hugh 
WiLLDi'GiiiiY, nephew of Lord Middleton, was fla;;- 
lieutenant to Admiral Sir Hugo Pearson, and subse- 
quently to Admiral Sir W'ilniot Kawkes. His youngest 
brother. Captain Godfrey Willoughby, of the gth 
Kifle Brigade, fell in I'landers on August 9, 191 5. 

Si ui.i;oN .Vi-KXANDiu; MoKisoN, kil'cd on board 
ihe Indefatigable, was one of Scotl.md's foremost 
footballers. He pl.iyed for Watson's College for six 
\ears, and is the sixth member of this team who has 
lallen in the couiilry's service. 

Liia'TESAST Ci-Ai'DF. DK M KNTVM.i.i: LiCAS. agcd 
ij, was the youngest son of the late Lieul. Colonel 
Lucas, of Duncliidrock House, Iixetcr. He became 
I lieutenant in July last year. 

Ln I TKNAsr Hisnv Gkokgi; Stouakt Laing, 
aged .'3, was gramlsou of the laie Sir James Laing, 
of I'tal Manor, Northumberland, and Sunderland, 
the eminent shipbuilder. He pnssed out of Dart- 
mouth as Chief I'adet. receiving the King's (iold 
Medal and Oirli. presented by the .Admiralty. 

CiiAi'i.AiN and Naval Isstkictou the kr.v. ("ii v 
Ai;i«>Tr BuowMsc;. Educated at Pulwicli College, 
lie was a Scholar of St. John's C'-ll-ge, Cambridge, 
and a Wrangler in 1900. 

H.M.S. DEFENCE. 

KiakAdmikai. Sik KonnuT Ki irn .VKutTHNOT, 
Ht., C.H., M.V.O., eldest son ot Sir William 
Wedderburn .Arbulhnot, third baronet, served 
in Ihe Naval Imelligence Departmi-nt. He was 
severely injured in a serious gun accident on 
board H.M.S. Koyal Sovereign off I'latea in 
November, 1901. In 1009 he w.is appointed captain 
of H.M.S. Lord Nelson and llagcaptain to Kear- 
Admiral C. J. Hriggs. Sir Robeit was .1 well-known 
motor-cyclist, and had a record uueipialled among 
amateurs. 

CoMMANiii K .VnrniK L. SiLVEKToi' was specially 
promoted to lieutenant for services in the Philippine 
Islands in February, i8,Sg. He was appointed com- 
mander of the Vernon for wireless duties in 191 1. 

Em'.iskir CoMMA.NniK Edwarp Mi:i:siin. P.S.O., 
was i>S. Ill the Laurel he took his part at the battle 
of Heligoland IJiglit so satisfactorily that he was 
promoted !■• r ..tTun mcfn inr! w 1-; made a Companion 



of the Distinguished Service Order. He was present 
at the sinking of the Hlncher and at the evacuation 
of both Anzac and Cape Hcllcs. 

LlKUTENANT-CoMMANOEK THE HoN. HuGH C. R. 

FiELPiNG, R.N., second son of the Earl and Countess 
of Denbigh, had been torpedo officer of the Defence 
for three and a-half years, and for the last few 
months had been first lieutenant. He was awarded 
several prizes and distinctions. 

Lieutenant C. H. Ahercromiue was famous 
both as a cricketer and as a Rugby football player. 
A splendid forward, he played for Scotland against 
li^ngland and Ireland in 1910, and against Wales 
and l'~rance in 191 1. 

Lieutenant Koderic Charles Ali"5tek Gow was 
the youngest son of the Headmaster of Westminster. 

H.M.S. BLACK PRLNCE. 

Captain Thomas 1". P. Honiiam, R.N., became 
staff oflicer of the Vernon, the torpedo schoolship, in 
igoi. He commanded a Minelayer S(piadron from 
igij to igi4, in I'ebruary of which year be was 
appointed Inspecting Captain cf Mine-sweeping 
Vessels. 

CoM.MANnEU John Bkauohamp Watf.rlow, 
D.S.O., grandson of the late Sir .Sydney Waterlow, 
Bt., was three times meniioned in despatches for 
services rendered in connection with tlie landing of 
troops at Gallipoli. He received the D.S.O. for 
mine-sweeping operations in the Dardanelles. 

Lieu rENAN r. Roheut C. Ciuchesti-i;, third sou 
of the late Rear-.Vdniiral Sir Ixiward Chichester, Bt., 
C.B., and broiher of Sir ICdward Chichester, served 
in H.M.S. Indefatigable and torpedo-boat destroyers. 

H.M.S. SHARK. 

Commander Loitus W. Jones, who, with one 
leg shot away, served his last gun to the end, was 
the second son of .Admiral Loitus Jones and great- 
nephew of Admiral Sir Lewis Jones. He served 
with distiucliou in the fi^ht in the Bight of Heligo- 
land on .'\u;ust 2S. igi4. Two of his brothers are in 
the Navy. 

H.M.S. TIPPERARY. 

Captain Charles John Wintour was appointed 
in command ot a division of destroyers in July. igo(), 
and had served with them ever since. He was 
h-.idiiig the flotilla in the Tippcrary when she was 
sunk on May 31. 

H.M.S. NESTOR. 

Commander the Hon. E. B. S. Bingham was 
the third son of Lord Clanmorris. As second lieu- 
tenant he took part in Admiral Sturdee's action off 
the Falkland Lle^ in December, 1914. 



Ccmmander ■-*. L. L. Pennell. 




yit^ 



Lieul.-Com. P. Whitfield. 




Lieu(.-Ccm. Hon B. Binghan 





^fk 



Lieut. J. M. e. Hanlty. 




Liful Robl. I. Fautkner 



Lieut. -Com. L. H. Shore. 



^aval Souvenir. 












sssae:;^ 



tiWSfWyjV^. 






I 



I 



I 

i 









Appendix to Sir John Jellicoe's Report. 

The Commander-in-Chief of the Grand, Fleet has included in his despatch, which is given verbatim 
pages 9-15, the major portion of Sir David Beattys report. The latter is given in full as an Appendix 
the official despatch; but the paragraphs not quoted by Admiral Jellicoe are reproduced in full below: — 



to 



The I St and 3rd Light Cruiser Squadrons were almost 
continuously in touch with the battle cruisers, one or 
both squadrons being usually ahead. In this position they 
were of great value. They very effectively protected the 
head of our line from torpedo attack by light cruisers or 
destroyers, and were prompt in helping to regain touch 
when the enemy's line was temporarily lost sight of. 
The 2nd Light Cruiser Squadron was at the rear of our 
battle line during the night, and at 9 p.m. assisted to 
repel a destroyer attack on the 5th Jiattle Squadron. 
They were also heavily engaged at 10.20 p.m. with 
five enemy cruisers or light cruisers, "Southampton" 
and "Dublin" (Captain Albert C. Scottj suffering 
.severe casualties during an action lasting about 
15 rain lies. " Birmingham " (Captain Arthur A M. 
Duff), at 11.30 p.m., sighted two or more heavy ships 
steeiTng South. A report of this was received by me at 
11.40 p.m. as steering W.S.W. They were thought at 
the time to be battle cruisers, but it is since considered 
that they were probably battleships. 

* * * * 

It is impossible to give a definite statement of the 
losses inflicted on the enemy. The visibility was for the 
most part low and fluctuating, and caution forbade lue to 
close the range too much with my inferior force. 

A review of all the reports which I have received 
leads me to conclude that the enen^y's losses were con- 
siderably greater than those which we had sustained, in 
spite of their superiority, and included battleships, 
battle crui^rs, light cruisers, and destroyers. 

This is eloquent testimony to the very high standard 
of gunnery and torpedo efficiency of His Majesty's Ships. 
The control and drill remained undisturbed throughout, 
in many cases despite heavy damage to material and 
personnel. Our superiority over the enemy in this re- 
spect was very marked, their efficiency becoming rapidly 
reduced under punishment, while ours was maintained 
throughout. 

As was to be expected, the behaviour of the ships' com- 
panies under the terrible conditions of a modern sea 
battle was magnificent without exception. The strain on 
their moral was a severe test of discipline and training. 
Officers and men were imbued with one thought, the de- 
sire to defeat the enemy. The fortitude of the wounded 
was admirable. A report from the Commanding Officer 
of " Chester " gives a sple idid instance ol devotion to duty. 
Boy (ist class) John Travers Cornwall, of "Chester," was 
mortally wounded early in the action. He nevertheless 
remained standing alone at a most exposed post, quietly 
awaiting orders till the end of the action, with the gun's 
crew dead and wounded all round him. His age was 
under 16^^ years. I regret that he has since died, but 1 
recommend his case for special recognition in justice to 
his memory, and as an acknowledgment of the high 
example set by him. 

In such a conflict as raged continuously 
for five hours it was inevitable that we 
should suffer severe losses. It was neces- 
sary to maintain touch with greatly superior 
forces in fluctuating visibility, often very low. 
We lost "Invincible," "Indefatigable" and 
" Queen Mary," from which ships there were 
few survivors. The casualties in other ships 
were heavy, and I wish to express my deepest 
regret at the loss of so many gallant com- 
rades, officers and men. They died glori- 
ously. 

Exceptional skill was displayed by the 
Medical Officers of the Fleet. They per- 
formed operations and tended the wounded 
under conditions of extreme difficulty. In 
some cases their staff was seriously depleted 
by casualties, and the inevitable lack of such 
essentials as adequate light, hot water, &c.. 



in ships damaged by shell fire tried their skill, resource 
and physical endurance to the utmost. 

As usual, the Kngine Room Departments of all ships 
displayed the highest qualities of technical skill, disci- 
pline and endurance. High speed is a primary factor 
in the tactics of the squadrons under my command, and 
the Kngine Room Departments never fail. 

I have already made mention of the brilliant support 
afforded me by Rear-Admiral H. Evan-Thomas, M.V.O., 
and the 5th Battle Squadron, and of the magnificent 
manner in which Rear-Admiral Hon. H. L. A. Hood, 
l-".B., M.V.O., D.S.O., brought his squadron into action. 
1 desire to record my great regret at his loss, which is a 
national misfortune. I would now bring to your notice 
the able support rendered to me by Rear-Admiral W. C. 
I'akenham, C.B., and Rear-Admiral O. de B. Brock, 
C.B. In the course of my report I have ex- 
pressed my appreciation of the good work performed by 
the Light Cruiser Squadrons under the command re- 
spectively of Rear-Admiral T. D. W. Napier, M.V.O., 
Commodore \V. E. Goodenough, M.V.O., and Commo- 
dore E. S. Alexander-Sinclair, M.V.O. On every occa- 
sion these officers anticipated my wishes, and used their 
forces to the best possible effect. 

I desire also to bring to your notice the skill with 
which their respective ships were handled by the Com- 
manding Officers. With such Flag Officers, Commodores 
and Captains to support me my task was lightened. 

The destroyers of the 1st and 13th Flotillas were 
handled by their respective Commanding Officers with 
skill, dash, and courage. I desire to record my very 
great regret at the loss of Captains C. F. Sowerby (In- 
defatigable), C. I. Prowse (Queen Mary), and A. L. Cay 
(Invincible), all officers of the highest attainments, who 
can be ill spared at this time of stress. 

I wish to endorse the report of the Rear-Admiral Com- 
manding the 5th Battle Squadron as to the ability dis- 
played by the Commanding Officers of his squadron. 



to your 
a day of 




In conclusion, I desire to record and brin 
notice the great assistance that I received on 
great anxiety and strain from my Chief of the Staff. 
Captain R. \V. Bentinck, whose good judgment was of 
the greatest help. He was a tower of strength. My 
Flag" Commander, Hon. R. A. R. Plunkett, was most 
valuable in observing the effect of our fire, thereby 
enabling me to take advantage of the enemy's discom- 
fiture ; my Secretary, F. T. Spickernell, who made accu- 
rate notes of events as they occurred, which proved of 
the utmost value in keeping the situation clearly before 
me ; my Flag Lieutenant, Commander R. F. Seymour, 
who maintained efficient communications under the most 
difficult circumstances, despite the fact that his signal- 
ling appliance? were continually shot away. 
All these Officers carried out their duties 
with great c olness on the manoeuvring 
platform, where they were fully exposed to 
the enemy's fire. 



In accordance 
forwarding in a 
of Officers and Men whom 
commend to your notice 



with your wish 
separate lefer a 



s. I 

full 

wish to 



am 
list 






John Travers Cornwell. 

the lad whose beroio 

death is mentioned in 

the report. 



1 have the honour to be, Sir, 

Your obedient Servant, 

David Beatty, 

Vice-Admiral. 
The Commander-in-Chief, 
Grand Fleet. 












'^jr^.rjS'^^jr^^^^ 



s. »y.*'j.'>><is*.^W>'>-lA 



S^ 



18 



Naval Souvenir. 




SIR JOHN JELLICOE ON THE BATTLE. 



By JOHN LEYLAND. 

Author of ■• The Royal Navy: Its In/lucicc iii E,i^li:,h History and the Growth oj Empire. 

Editor of Brassey's "Naval Annual." 



THK despatch addressed by the Cominaiider-in- 
Chief of the Grand Fleet to the Admiralty, 
dcscribinjj; the great naval engaycmenl <it 
May \i off the Jutland B;ink, is a document 
of many merits. It is simjjle and direct, setting; forth 
the circumstances in the nuinncr of the sea, and tellinjj 
the story with a darily and dif^nity which will en;ibl,' 
those who read it with care .'ind insij^ht to understand 
the general development of the action. Nothing is 
exaggerated and nothing extenuated. Possibly thc- 
lale is but haU-toId, but the enemy will glean nothing 
to his adviuitage from what Sir John Jeliicoe has said, 
and that was, of course, a right and uason.ible object 
in the writing and publishing of the desj^atch. The 
Conmtander-in-Chief is full of admiration for the 
gallant services of his olTicers and men of every rank 
and ratin^^. He pays a noble tribute to those who laid 
down their lives for their country in the battle, lie 
speaks of the fine qualities of gallant leadi-rship, firm 
determination iind correct strategic insight of Sir 
David Beulty, and of other flag oflicers he speaks in 
high I^Tnis also. He denies neither gallantry nor 
skill to the enemy. He claims no gloi ious victory, 
but, on tlve otiier hand, he is .satisfied that the adver- 
sary has i-uffered very heavily in the Ixittle. 

The best thing one can do ncre is to endeavour to 
discover the leading features of the battle, both 
strategically and tactically. We are presented, in 
the first place, with a division of the Fleet, which, 
however, a " competent authority,' whose views have 
been promulgated, has been careful to point out was 
apparent and not real. \Ve may regard it as a 
strategic division of forces of which the object was to 
bring the enemy to action in circumstances advan- 
tageous to ourselves, and, as the same " authority " 
remarks, the risk run would be measured mainly by 
the skill with which .Xdmiral Beatty could entice the 
enemy northward without himsell being overwhelmed 
by superior force. 

FOLLOWING THE BEST TRADITIONS. 

Nothing unsiitisfaclory cm be concluded from a 
mere division of naval forces, unless it can be shown 
that some disaster or misfortune has followed. St. 
Vincent divided his forces off Cadiz, when he sent 
Nelson into the Mediterranean and gave us the victorv 
of the Nile. ("ornwallis divided his fleet olT Brest, 
with results tluit enabled Caldei- to encounter Ville- 
neuve on July 22, 1S05, in an action which was not, 
unfortunately, as conclusive as the nation hoped it 
Would be. Because Howe did not attack d'Estaign 
when the latter arrived in great force oT Sandy Hook 
in July, 1778, we must not say that Sir David Beatty 
ought not to have attacked Admiral Hipper in the 
Jutland Bank battle. We have Sir John Jelli'.oe's 
wool for it that the course pursued was unavoidable, 
as " had our b.itlle-cruise.rs not followed the eneniy to 
the souLhward, the main fleets of the enemy would 
ne\'«T have been in contact.*' On the other hand, the 
official chart certainly shows that the Germans turned 
northward again at ab<Hit 4.SJ p.m., when their b.ittle- 
fleet was coming up from the South-Hast, and stood 
on a northerly course imtil about 6 p.m. But here \vc 
must leave the subject of the division and co-opera- 
tion of the I'leet. Obviously this aspect of the action 
cannot be treated with advantage in this place. 

Tlve action was brought about by the instructions of 
the Commander-in-Chief, which <lirected one of those 
[>friodical sweeps through the North Sea, which have 
bt-i^n a part of general policy, and Sir David Realty's 
Battle-Cru'ser I'leet, suppi^r'od by the F"ifth Battl'* 
Squadron (Renr-Admlr.il H. Evan-Thomas), which 
consisted of four 24-knot Ouecn Elizabeths, was the 
.ld^•anced or observation force. It is wt>r;hy of remark 
that the German .^dmiralty report transmitte<l io the 
Associat<-<l Press of America, states tint the High 



Sir 
e-cruiscr 



Sea Fleet, consisting of three battle squadrons, with 
five battle-cruisers, a large number of small cruisers, 
and several destroyer flotillas, waj cruising off the 
Skager Rak " with the purpos-j, as on earlier occa- 
sions, of olTcring brittle to the Biitish Fleet." 

David Beatty says that the op(xising battl 

squadrons commenced action at a range of 18,500 yards 
a; 3.48 p.m., "opening fire praciicallv simul- 
taneously." We may therefore say with certainty that 
there was no reluctance to engage on either side. 
Perhaps both were " sixjiling for 'a fight." We mav 
well believe, however, that the Germ.uis did not wish 
l(> fe<l the full weight of Sir John Jcllicoe's blow. 
Probably thetr "enterprise towards the North " was 
made w ith the object of encountering Sir David Beatty 
alone. The latter was unfortunately unaware of the 
approach of the enemy's battle fleet umil his own 
hght cruise-r, the Southampton, signalled their ap- 
proach. No patrolling ves*;l or in<!ependcnt flotilla 
appears to have sighted them, or the Vice-Admirul 
would not have b<^en left uniiif<rme<l. 

H.M.S. QUEEN MARY'S FATE. 
The battle look the form of a parallel action, as in 
the old wars, that is to say that the main battle- 
cruiser fleets were each in singl<> line ahead, en-T-ging 
one aiiother. The Filth Battle Squadron did not 
come into action until jo minutes after the battle was 
engaged, ojjening fire at 20,000 yards. At the begin- 
ning of the battle the Gerihan fire seems to liave been 
very accurate, but our fire *oon dominated it, and the 
enemy's fire grew weaker and less accurate. It ap- 
I ears to have been within the first six minutes of the 
battle that the Oueen Mary was blown up and torn 
asunder by ,1 thunderous <'.\plosion, which sent that 
n-.agnihcent battle-cruiser ins'.nntly to the bottom. 
Upon the causes of this disaster the desjiatch throws 
no light, nor upon the precise phase of the operations 
in which It occurred. Sir John Jeliicoe is con'-nt to 
give a list of the ships lost. 

Now deyeloi>ed a vtTy gallant enterprise in the 
battle, in which eight destroyers of the 15th Flotilla, 
with some others, were ordered to attack the eneiiiv 
wrth torpedoes. This happervd at 4.15 p.m., and the 
enemy's d<-'troyers seem to have had ii similar enter- 
prise in hand. Sir David B<atly's despatch recounts 
the gallant story, which, as he savs, indicated the 
spirit ixrvading his Majesty s Navy,' the action being 
worthy of its lughest traditions. Some of these 
destroyers came under the heavy fire of the enemy's 
big ships at close quarters. Tiie use of destroyers for 
attacking fiwts in daylight seems to be a new' feature 
of nav.il warfare. So far as the writer's knowledge 
goes. It has not been practised in manccuvrcs. The 
intrepid character of our young officers is bevond all 
P'aise, though iinfortunatelv Sir Dayi<l Beatt'v is un- 
■ible to say definitely that their attack was effective 
I he real chance of the destroyers came when the night 
fell. ■ '^ 

Even while the destroyers were attacking the battle- 
cruisers fight grew in intensity. The direction was 
still to the southward, the two fleets parallel, and the 
four Oueen Elizabeths of the Fifth Battle Squadron 
were pouring at long range a destructive fire on the 
rear of the enemy's battle-cruiser line. 

The first great phase of the action ended at 
4.42 p.m.. when the German Rattle Fleet was sighted 
ahead. It had been a double phase— the first fight of 
the battle-cruisers and the brilliant destroyer att.ack, 
followed by the entry of battleships into action. But 
when ihe main body of the German High Sea Fleet 
was discerned approaching at high speed from the 
south-east. Sir David Realty turned his Fleet 16 
points, reversing his course, and his four battleships 
came up astern. Admiral Hipper conformed to his 
new dis[K.sition, also altering course 16 points. It i^ 



19 



Naval Souoenir. 



i 



n 



s 



K) 






9> 



I 



SIR JOHN JELLICOE ON THE BATTLE-cowf/MweJ. 



I^i/M 3iHk '7e« 



worthy of remark that in this movement tlie two 
Fleets turned outward from one another, thus tem- 
porarily increasing the range, which is in accordance 
with tactical wisdom, because ships may become 
" straddled " — that is, come end-on to the enemy — 
with guns unable to bear as they are on the turn, i he 
operation may therefore become rather critical. 

We now see the opposing Fleets still opposing one 
another— in parallel lines, but with the course directed 
to the north-west. Sir David Beatty was leading 
on the Germans towards our own Grand Fleet. The 
fresh elements in the battle were the accession of new 
forces. The main body of the German Fleet was 
coming up at high speed to get into action astern of 
the battle-cruisers, and possibly Admiral Hipper did 
not use his best speed in order that he might assist 
in this operation. Sir John Jellicoe's Battle Fleet 
was coming down from the north at the highest pos- 
sible speed. A decisive phase of the battle was ap- 
proaching. The Third Battle-Cruiser Squac.on, 
under command of that splendid officer Rear-.^dmiral 
the Hon. Horace Hood, which had been with the flag, 
was sent on ahead. 

Meantime, Sir David Beatty was standing on a 
north-westward course at high s|3eed, and evidently 
getting ahead of the Germans. Visibility was not 
good for us, and tlie range was reduced, but, though 
our ships were silhouetted against a clear western 
sky, the enemy received very severe punishment, as 
the despatch records. The position of the Germans 
was now becoining dangerous. The .Adinira! was 
getting ahead of them, and 
at about 5.30 p.m. he 
altered course to the east 
of north, the Germans edg- 
ing away to the east also. 
Sir David Beatty was en- 
deavouring to " cross their 
T " — that is, to steam east- 
ward across the head of 
their line. They had evi 
dently suffered very 
heavily, and in order to 
escape disaster the three 
German battle-cruisers which were 
still visible turned in a wide sweep from 
east to south. The eastward turn was 
made at about 6 o'clock, and an hour 
later the enemy was in flight. H<' had 
gone too far north for safety. Much 
damage had been received by both sides, 
but the advantag-e was all with u-.. .Admiral 
Hood's Third Battle-Cruiser Squadron had 
taken station ahead of Sir David Beatty and 
was in action with the enemy at the short 
range of 8,000 yards. Hood, whose action 
was " worthy of his great naval ancestors," 
fought magnificently, and it was very sad 
that he was lost to us in the sinking of the 
Invincible. 

Now we may turn to the direct interven- 
tion of Sir John Jellicoe, who handled his 
Fleet in a most masterly manner. The 
sounds of the battle were audible to him as 
he approached, and flashes beeame visible 
just before 6 o'clock ahead of him. .\l this 
time the Battle-Cruiser .Squadrons were go- 
ing-eastward across his front. But the situa- 
tion was very dift":cu!t, because for some 
time the actual position of the enemy could 
not be known, and our own battle-cruisers 
were between the Grand Fleet and the 
Germans. There was a danger of friends 
being mistaken for enemies in the mist\' 
weather, but at about O.15 the position 
of the enemy's Battle Fleet was made out, 
and at the same time Sir Robert .\rbuthnot's 
Cruiser Squadron, fighting most gallantly, 
came unwittinarlv ne:ir the German big- 



ships, and that brave officer and severat of his ships 
were lost in a magnificent struggle. 

The First Battle Squadron of the Grand Fleet, com- 
manded by Sir Cecil Burney, opened fire at 6.17 
against the enemy's battleships, which by this time 
were within range, and the Marlborough, his flagship, 
did great execution, even when she had been hit by a 
torpedo, and had a considerable list. Her fire was 
"particularly rapid and effective." The enemy 
seems now to have been in some disarray, and his 
object was not to engage but to escape. Sir John 
Jellicoe's south-westward sweep was a splendid opera- 
tion which brought, first on the enemy's bow and 
then on his quarter, overwhelming force to bear. 
Constantly the Germans turned away, seeking shelter 
behind smoke screens, the ranges being from 9,000 to 
12,000 yards ; and so the action continued until 
8.20 p.m. The Fourth Battle Squadron, in which 
was Sir John Jellicoe's flagship, the Iron Duke, did 
most effective work, beginning her hits on a ship of 
the Koenig class at the second salvo. This demon- 
strated splendid gunnery organisation. 

Although the Grand Fleet remained in proximity 
to the scene of battle and on the line of Gem-ian 
retirement until 11 a.m. on June i, the Commander- 
in-Chief was compelled to the conclusion that the 
High Sea Fleet had returned to port. 



OFFICIAL CHART OF THE BATTLE. 



British 
SbttleCniisers ' 




i 




I Jia;//!a/it 



'^"^''\.. BATTLE orr JUTLAND 

3r'Mi_y 1916 

ApprtxritnaUTrack of BnUih Bat^UFlitl •ho-rn (Auj 
British Battle Crui^^n 
, ~ Er\^myi Ships . . ,. 

NOTE 

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•yrxiy and (u a ftntral induaiion O' t}t£ 
teurte c^ tKt Baltic 



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ADVERTISEMENT. 



Naval Souvenir. 




21 



3X.ava! Sojvenir. 




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MAKERS OF OUR MODERN NAVY. 
WHAT THE EMPIRE OWES TO LORD FISHER 



Come, tumble up, Lord Nelson, the British Fleet's a looming! 
Come, show a leg, Lord Nelson, the guns they are a booming ! 
'Tis a loDgish line of battle — such as we did never see ; 
An' 'tis not the same old round-shot as was fired by you and me 1 



-DiulUy Clark. 




THIS country owes a great deal 
to the men who gave us the 
modern Fleet— the allbiggun 
Fleet of the Dreadnougtits, 
Bellerophons, St. Vincents, 
Neptunes, Orions, King George V.'s, 
Iron Dukes, Queen Elizabeths, and 
Royal Sovereigns. Marvellous has been 
the trans' ormation effected since the 
Dreadnought was laid down. She was 
the proudest ship of her day, the embodi- 
ment of speed and power, and she is 
famous still, because 
every subsequent and 
more powerful ship has 
carried further the prin- 
ciple which the Dread- 
nought represented. 

The Grand Fleet is a 
magnificently equipped 
and perfectly poised in- 
strument of war, complete 
in every class of ship, 
vessel and auxiliary and 
repair ship, owing its 
character and readiness 
to the vast reform which 
Lord Fisher drove througn, and to an organ- 
isation which those who came after him carried 
further under the tutelage of experience and events. 
The great principle, which found us ready in 
August, 1914, and readier still on May 31st, 1916, was 
that every ship in the fighting line should always be 
ready for sea. Everything that was useless was cut 
off. A battleship not strong enough to take her 
place in the line of battle was useless. So with the 
requirements in other classes of ships. 

This was the kind of economy that has given us 
our present strength. Crews locked up in old ships 
on distant stations were released and used in the 
new ships. The Fleet had been distributed accord- 
ing to the traditions of the Napoleonic wars, but 
strength gradually grew, and the front was changed 
from the Channel to the North Sea. The old Fleet 
Reserves were done away with, and ships not in full 
commission were provided with nucleus crews, con- 
sisting of specialist officers and higher trained 
expert ratings of the men. An immense deal is due 
to the officers of these ships who, in difficult circum- 
stances, kept everything in readiness for mobilisation. 
No longer were ships in the charge of "care and 
maintenance parties" ready to break down when 
ever they went to sea. Hand in hand with all this 
went on the gradual re-organisation of tLe Fleet in 
Squadrons and Fleets, developing the great system 




Lord Fisher, the Maker of the Dreadnought. 



which is embodied fully in the Grand 
Fleet. Battleships were given repairing 
facilities on board, repair ships accom- 
panied the Fleet, new bases grew up on 
the East Coast, and have now ahnost 
reached maturity. Submarines began 
to be built also, and the mine-trawling 
fleet was called into existence. 

The Dreadnoughts constituted the 
strength of these organisations, and they 
it was that struck the mighty hammer 
blows. No modern battleships before 
the Dreadnought ever 
carried more than four 
of the biggest guns. The 
Lord Nelson and Aga- 
memnon foreshadowed 
the advance by mount- 
ing in addition ten 9.2 in. 
guns, but the Dread- 
nought was the first of 
all-big-gun ships. This 
was her outstanding fea- 
ture — her great gun- 
power, combined with 
high speed, and a rela- 
tively small displace- 
ment, and not her great size and cost. Speed was 
required to enable ships of this class to reach the 
scene of action, as when Sir John Jellicoecame down 
and dismayed the German Fleet. Our Dreadnoughts 
are magnificent vessels of enormous gun-power — 
i3-in., I3.5in. and 15-in. in successive classes, and of 
high sea speed, the Queen Elizabeths being good for 
24 knots. The supreme courage with which Lord 
Fisher adopted the turbine in the original Dread- 
nought, giving lighter weights and greater space for 
internal construction, was a great factor in this 
development which gave us such advantage in the 
Jutland Battle. 

All honour then to Lord Fisher, First Sea Lord 
from October, 1904, to January, 1910, the far-sighted 
maker of the modern Fleet, where high courage 
and indomitable will and power were manifested in 
this vast re-organisation, and in much more. " Instant 
readiness for war " had been his watchword. After 
him came Sir Arthur Wilson, the great tactician and 
embodiment of the " silent Navy." Sir Francis 
Bridgeman and Prince Louis of Battenberg, who 
was First Sea Lord when the mobilisation took place 
for the war, and then again came Lord Fisher, in 
October, 1914, full of fresh ideas, imparting new 
vigour to everything he touched, and unrelenting in 
his pursuit of the things that make for victory in war. 
Sir Henry Jackson now holds his place. 








Reading from loft to ri«ht the above makers of our modern Navy, in succession to Lord Fisher, are :— Admiral Sir A K. Wilson, 
first S>ea Lord, 1909-11: Admiral Sir F. Brid<eman-Brid<eman. First Sea Lord. 1911-12 i Admiral H. S. H. Prinoe Lonis of 
Uattenberg, First Sea Lord. 1912-14 , Ri^ht Hon. Winston Churchill. First Lord. 1911-lS ; Admiral Sir Henry Bradwardine 
Jackson. First Sea Lord since 1915; Ritht Hon. A. J. Balfour, l<irst Lord since 1915. 




22 



ADVF.RTIStMENT. 



Naval Souvenir. 



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a babyhuod that shall develop to sound, 
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upon whicii they were reared in babyhood. 

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A BRILLIANT BRITISH VICTORY 

SIR DAVID BEATTY'S 
CONSUMMATE SKILL. 

By admiral SIR CYPRIAN BRIDGE, G.C.B. 



THE British Grand Fleet put to sea on one of its 
periodical "sweeping" cruises; the German 
High Sea Fleet also put to sea ; the two forces 
met, and a battle ensued. All this is (juile 
plain, and leaves no room for doubt or controversy. 
If we study the reports we shall see that doubt can 
only arise or controversy be reasonable when details 
are concerned. 

E.xamination of the proceedings, on May 31 last, 
will lead up to an appreciation of the facts. The first 
. fact that discloses itself is that our Fleet was so dis- 
tributed tliat, if the enemy were to put to sea, he 
would be surely fallen in with, and would be enticed 
into joining battle. Had our w'hole force been kept 
together it would have been reasonable to expect that 
the enemy would shun an engagement with so power- 
ful a fleet, and that no battle would have taken place. 

WHY THE FLEETS SEPARATED. 

Sir David Bexrtty was far enough from Sir John 
Jellicoe's main body to encourage the enemy in the 
belief that he might be attacked on terms favourable 
to our opponents ; and yet Sir David was not so far 
away from that main body that he could not by sicii- 
ful manoeuvring draw the hostile fleet to the spot 
where it was desirable to get it; in fact, into the 
arms of Sir John Jellicoe. This could only be done 
by fighting; bv bringing on an action which, when 
once started, the enemy could not venture to break 
off except at a great disadvantage to himself. 

EXCELLENT TACTICS. 

Much has been said, and most deservedly, of Sir 
David Beatty's splendid gallantry in hastening to 
fight liis enemy as soon as he sighted him. The pro- 
cedure deserves even higher praise. It was a tacti- 
cal movement of singular excellence. It repeated the 
method of Nelson, viz., not letting an enemy, once 
sighted, get away without a battle. Sir David had 
to fight in a particular way, so that the enemy might 
reduce and not increase the distance between him and 
Sir John Jellicoe's battleships. That he did this 
admits of no dispute. It gave the note on wdiich the 
whole battle was fought. Had the weather been 
perfectly clear 
and the light 
good, it would 
have been 
highly c o m - 
mendable ; i n 
the shifting 
and varying 
mists of the 
North Sea it 

was strikingly, 
almost won- 
derfuUv, skil- 
ful. 

.■\n obvious 

desideratum on 

our side was to 

interpose our 

force between 

the enemy's 

and his bases. 

This must have 

been as well 

k lown to the 

enemy as it was 

to our own 

people ; and it 

hardly admits 



FIRING BROADSIDES 
1 2-in. Guns in action 



of doubt that he tried to prevent it. He did not 
succeed in preventing it. Sir John Jellicoe grasped 
the situation at once, and got, so to speak, on the 
enemy's inner side. 

INNUMERABLE SMALL BATTLES. 

Owing to the misty weather; which hid the enemy's 
movements, this operation was extremely difficult, 
and its successful execution should bring lasting 
credit to the Commander-in-Chief. It rendered it 
possible for the engagement to become general ; the 
battleships of the Grand Fleet being in action for 
rathor more than two hours. There were also 
innumerable other actions going on. Our light 
cruisers and destroyers fought with gallantry that 
might be called reckless had it not been governed by 
sound tactical conceptions and a knowledge of what 
was best to be do^ne. Where all showed such daz.ding 
courage it is not easy to particularise; but every true 
Britiih heart will be stirred by the memory of the de- 
voted gallantry of the officers and men of our 
destroyers. In both Sir David Beatty's connnand and 
the Main Fleet the superiority of the British gunnery 
was reported, and seems to have been established bv 
the results. The reports speak in the highest terms 
of the admirable efficiency of the engineer ofllcers and 
tile engine-room complements. Here, as at the Falk- 
land Islands, they did all that men could do. 

UNQUESTIONABLE BRITISH VICTORY. 

The enemy, favoured by the imperfect visibility of 
a misty evening, and then by darkness, was able — 
though after heavy losses — to get back in a battered 
condition to his ports. Our losses also were heavy, 
and we have to lament many brilliant and gallant 
officers and men. No grent victory over a well-equipped 
and determined enemy can be won without considerable 
losses. Our recent losses appeared exceptionally 
^reat, because ships v\ ere sunk and whole crews 
perished wiih them This is a result of the armament 
and naval material of the day, and of the fact that 
navies have not had long experience of their use. In 

the great naval 
conflicts of the 
seventeenth 
century — in the 
infancy of the 
then naval 
material — b at - 
ties were not 
thought inde- 
cisive or vic- 
tories denied 
because ships 
had been lost 
on either side. 
The battle of 
May 31st, 1916, 
was one of the 
greatest and 
also one of the 
most decisive 
ever fought. 
Tactically and 
strategically we 
won a victory 
finer than many 
of those of 
which we have 
lor.g been justly 
pro ltd. 




FROM A BIG SHIP, 
in the North Sea. 



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SUBMARINES and DESTROYERS 

THEIR FART IN THE EPIC OF JUTLAND. 





The submarine has developed qualities of security, ranie and independence 
which were not expected of her. Her equipments are a wonder of 
ingenuity and completeness, but there is a limit to her effectivene-s, and 
many of the problems which she has to face become increasingly difficult* 



WHAT part 
did the sub- 
marine play 
in tiie battle 
of May 31st ? This 
question is more easily 
asktd than answered. 
We may say with cer- 
tainty that on our side 
the submarine was not 
employed at all, unless 
it may have been in 
what we may call the 
fringes of the battle. 
That the Germans 
had some submarines 
at worii we know, 
because at least one 
of them was destro_\-ed 
by being rammed. 

Undersea Attacks. 

Submarines had as- 
sisted in previous en- 
gagements, having put 
in an appearance both 
at the Heligoland 
Bight, August 28th, 

1914, and the Dogger 
Bank, January 24th, 

1915. One correspon- 
dent said of the rec. nt 
battle that there ap- 
peared to be " a lot 
of German submar- 
ines, and they seemed 
to be very busy, but 
my impression is that a good many of them were 
done for by our ships running over them." That the 
Marlborough was injured Liy a torpedo we know. 

Eold Subni3rint:rs. 

The word " Fear " is not in the vocabulary of 
submarine officers and men. What they will dare 
in passing through mine-fields and in other periloi s 
situations is enough to take the breath of the 
ordinary man. Our submarine officers have 
developed extraordinary skill, and we cannot deny 
the same to the enemy. 

It must be admitted that it is not always easy to 
discover the true cause of the loss of each individual 
ship. The Queen Mary blew up with appalling 
suddenness, and the disaster has been ascribed by 
various witnesses to the action of the guns, and of 
submarines, mines, and Zeppelins and seapla es 
dropping bombs. Similar doubt appears to exist in 
regard to the sinking of the Invincible and other 
ships, and even where statements are made with 
confidence, except in regard to damage caused by 
shells, some doubt may still remain. 

Su;ier-Submarin?s. 

The Germans have unquestion:ibly intended to 
use submarines in Fleet actions. They hoped that 
the submarine might enable them to pick off some 
of our ships and so reduce the large balance against' 
them. The Americans have built two experimental 
submarines, intended to have a surface speed of 
25 knots, and to accompany the fleet at sea, and the 
Germans have been working with the -ame idea; but 
25 knots is not enough to euable submarines 
to keep up with modern fleets in action. We 
have heard of super-submarines of 2,000 tons and 
more, with high surface and submerged speed, and 
carrying large supplies of torpedoes, besides having 



armoured conning- 
towers and upper 
works, and being 
specially strength- 
ened against the 
effect of ramming. 
Whether such boats 
were in action we 
do not know. It is. 
perhaps, doubtful. 
Apparently they are 
intended to be to the 
ordinary submarine 
what the Fokker wa> 
to the ordinary aero- 
plane — immenselv 
superior lor special 
short rauge work. 

Destroyers. 

Some lime since 
we were assured bv 
Mr. Churchill that 
the days of the de- 
stroyer were num- 
bered, and that new 
submarines and light 
cruisers would take 
over all or most of 
their duties. Thes.; 
forecasts have not 
been justified, for 
the big destroyer is 
more valuable than 
ever she was, and 
probably some of 
the destruction attri- 
buted to the submarine may actually have been due 
to the destroyer. 

We had several flotillas of destroyers at work. 
One was composed of the ne / er ' N" class, including 
the Nomad and Nestor, and the other of the "K" 
class, with the Tipperary as leader, and including 
the Acasta, Ardent, Fortune, Porpoise, Shark and 
Sparrowhawk. Our destroyers were at close grips 
witn the enemy, both parrying blows aimed at 
the big ships and striking blows themselves. 

Thrilling Adv.nturcs of the Shark. 

The brilliant skill and proficiency of their young 
officers and the indomitable pluck of their men 
were adinirabh;, and when they had, it is said, pre- 
vented the German destroyers from getting their 
torpedoes "home" in the flanks of Britisli ships, they 
drove down on the enemy's line and covered them- 
selves with renown. The plucky dash of the Shark 
will live in history. She raced down between two lines 
of German destroyers, discharging torpedoes right 
and left at close range, sinking a couple of enemy 
destroyers, and then herself being sunk. Destroyers 
of this class are magnificent vessels of nearly 1,000 
tons and over 30 knots, with engines of over 24,000 
horse-power, and each carries three 4in. guns. 

The submarine has not all these advantages, 
destructive as she can prove herself. Engines of 
2,500 horse-power compare ill with the 25,000 horse- 
power of modern destrovers. Twenty-five knots on 
the surface, requiring, perhaps, 12,000 horse-power, 
is a ^peed probably not yet reached — 20 knots may be 
a maximum — and the utmost submerged speed may 
be about 16 knots. They do not carry such large tor- 
pedoes as the destroyer, and their guns are much less 
powerful. Being built for submerged duties their 
guns have not the same command as those of 
destrovers. 



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26 



ADVERTISEMENTS. 



Naval Souvenir, 




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Bird's Custard!" 



" Ii IS a way they have in the Navy " to enjoy the 
hfst of everything. There is no more popular dish 
thiin FSIKD'S Custard with the Handy Man; his healthy 
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Kxiraet of a Utter from a gunner icith thf Fleet — 

" We only realise it's Sunday because we always 
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Naval Souvenir. 





IN PRAISE OF OUR SEAMEN. 

BY ONE WHO KNOWS THEM WELL. 



THE men who fought so nobly for the Empire 
in the great battle at sea were as good men 
as Britain ever bore. On that tremendous 
day, amid the thunders of the battle, when 
Death was on the wing and speeding unseen through 
the deeps, not one of them quailed, and the sense of 
failure was not in the heart of any among them. 
As was said of some of the youngest, they 
" never turned a hair." They were staunch and true 
as in the greatest days of the Navy of wood and hemp 
and canvas. They excelled, indeed, any of their 
foregoers in the business of the sea, for never was 
there battle comparable to that of the eventful 31st 
of May. 

Jellicoe's Praise. 

Sir John Jellicoe has never lost an opportunity of 
paying tribute to the magnificent qualities of his 
seamen. They are models 
of all that seamen should 
be, and the country they 
have so well defended 
will never cease to be 
grateful for their ser- 
vices nor suffer to be 
forgotten the deeds of 
the thousands among 
them who died in Eng- 
land's cause. This 
was not the first battle 
in which they had en- 
gaged. Had they not 
been lighting ever since 
the War began ? Some 
there were who had 
fought in the Heligoland 
Bight, some at the Dogger 
Bank, others at the Falk- 
land Isles, and some in 
the Dardanelles, but all 
save the youngest in 
their company had 
fought through two 
winters in the icy grip of 
the North Sea, in the 
tremendous tumult of the 
waves and in the pitiless 
blast of the storm. No 
man who has not been 
with them can tell what 
that service has been. 

If we render justice here to these splendid seamen 
we still in thought and meaning exclude none of 
their fellowship, whether the men have served on 
deck or in the gun positions or in the engine-room, 
in big ships or little, in fleets or flotillas, in the 
actual battle or in mine-s%veepers or patrol vessels, 
or in any other class or description of craft which 
has been doing the business of England at sea. 
They are men of whom the country cannot be too 
proud, nor can it value them too much. 

A NaTal Inferno. 

No inferno has ever even suggested the horroi s of 
a modern battle at sea. " It was hell," said many. 
"Think of forty thunderstorms rolled into one," 
said one brave fellow, in a vain attempt to enable 
others to visualize his own experiences. White-hot 
masses of steel hurtling through the air, to work 
destruction wherever they hit or fell, deadly hails 
of shrapnel, clouds of smoke and flame and dust 
and steam, the deafening crash and clatter of it all, 
the shell or torpedo that found some vital spot and 
sent a thousand men to instant doom — these were 
the features of a fight that no man can describe. 

But with splendid resolution and as coolly and 



TO BEATTY'S BOYS. 

Were ye Gods, or mere boys. 
In your chariots of grey. 
On the storm-trodden way. 
With your thunderbolt toys 
And the earth-rending noise 

Of your play ? 

As ye drove in swift might 

Down the battle->vrecked line. 
Ye were surely divine 

Tor a day and a night. 

In Olympian fight 

On the brine. 

As Immortals ye strove 

At the gun and the wheel, 
From the tops to the keel. 
With the plaudits of Jove 
When your thunderbolts drove 

Through the steel. 

With our grief ocean-deep. 

And our praise heaven-hif^h. 
For your messmates who lie 

In their glorious sleep. 

We can smile as we weep 

Our good-bye. 

How the Jubilant cheers. 

That were quenched on their lips 
As they sank with their ships. 

Ever ring in our ears! 

How their glory appears 

Through eclipse! 

ARTHUR WAGHORNE. 



calmly and accurately as if in exercises of peace 
the seamen-gunners worked their guns. When 
ships were mortally hit the men went on un- 
flinchingly and dauntlessly still serving their guns. 
" Everything went just as if we had been at target 
practice," said one officer. The torpedo-men were 
as ready and efficient as in any evolution of peace. 
An Exhilarating Fight. 

There was spirit and exhilaration in the sight and 
fury of the combat, but there were men who never saw 
the battle. They were the noble fellows, the black 
squad, who served in the engine-room, and worked 
like Titans to get every ounce of pressure out of the 
engines. Think what it was to be in the engine-room 
of the big ships of the Grand Fleet, when every 
moment brought wireless news of the conflict in 
which Beatty was engaged, and the men in the 
bowels of the ships knew 
that everything depended 
upon them to reach the 
scene of battle in time. 
These grand fellows 
laboured unceasingly to 
keep their ships going 
at topmost speed, in heat 
and grime, and never was 
the engine-room work of 
the Fleet so magnificently 
efficient as in this tre- 
mendous time. Of these 
men, numbers of whom 
perished in the sunken 
ships, we cannot think 
too highly. 

Hearts of Oak 
Throughout. 

What is said here ap- 
plies to every rank and 
rating in the Service. 
The qualities of officers 
are well known — qualities 
of high training in every 
specialisation and duty 
and of leadership and 
command. Of these no- 
thing more shall be said 
in this article, save that 
the Navy was never 
better officered than now, 
and that the captains are a " band of brothers " such 
as were the pride and the strength of Nelson. The 
warrant and petty officers of the Fleet in the battle 
were, and still are, a body of men of superlative 
character. 

Some of the warmest work was in the destroyers, in 
the night of May 31st and the early dawn of June ist, 
when the German Fleet was hastening homeward. As 
the enemy's ships became visible the boats forged 
ahead to the attack and came to close quarters. The 
stories of some of them have been related. One officer 
thus described his experiences " Bang — off went one 
of our torpedoes, and round we turned and gave them 
two more, and then they saw us, and we had a 
' merry hell ' for a bit. However, we stuck it, and 
watched, and then to our joy from one of their ships 
leaped a huge flame higher than her masts — a terrific 
explosion, and red-hot fragments leaped sky-high, and 
after that no sign of her at all." Such were the 
situations in which the bluejackets and men of the 
engine-room complements of the destroyer flotillas 
worked in the battle. 

Long shall the tale be told of the heroism of that 
day. It shall shine brilliantly in the company of the 
brightest events in Naval History. 





28 



ADVERTISEMENT. 



Naval Souvenir. 



Reprinted from the " Daily Sketch." June 3, 1916. 



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29 



Naval Soii'venir. 



P^ THE K AI5ER CREATED THE 

GERMAN NAA^ . 



[a= 



THE STORY 
OFA 

SINGLE HANDED; 
FEAT OF 
ST^ECRAFT 



IT was truly a magnificent 
array of ships — the whole 
High Sea Fleet save, 
perhaps, some of the older 
vessels — that steamed out on 
the 31st of May under Admiral 
Reinhold von Scheer and his 
colleague Admiral Hipper, the 
latter of whom we met before 
in the Dojrger Bank affair. 

How comes it, we may well ask, that the 
greatest military Power on earth aspired also 
to equal dominion with us at sea? It came 
from the swift growth of Germany's Welt- 
politik. From thi' leaping prosperity which 
was hers after tlie humbling of France in 
1S70 sprang great dreams of vvorld-expansion 
and the idea that Germany's future lay on the 
water. 

In the old Emperor William's time Germans 
did not know what their Navy was for. The 
men of the present Emperor set about to 
teach them. The Navy law of 1895 was followed by that of 
igoo. In the year iScjo the German Empire possessed but a 
few small coast defence battleships. By 1913 her naval 
tonnage had mounted to 630,000 tons, including Dreadnoughts, 
both battleships and battle-cruisers, great flotillas of destroyers, 
and the building of the powerful long-range submarines, 
which were to be Germany's "trump card" against an island 
foe acknowledged to be immeasurably hei superior at sea, 
was beginning. How was this miraculous growth of a great 
navy brought about ? How was a purely military people 
induced to take interest in a nughty Navy when their only 
coast line was a hundred mi!es or so of mud-banks and 
unapproachable shoals ? 

Wilnelm the Fleet Maker. 

The outstanding fact is that they caught their fervour from 
the visions of their Emperor. But the Emperor was not 
enough. There would have been no German Navy, as we 
know it to-day, but for his chosen instrument, .Alfred 
von Tirpitz. From the fertile brain of the future Grand 
Admiral came a torrent of literature and inspiration of the 
press which taught the Germans at length what their Navy 
was to be built lor. Through storm and shine the Kaiser 
stood by Von Tirpitz. " 1 will not let them take my Tirpitz 
from me," he once exclaimed. The Emperor Wilhelm strove 
also with extraordinary zeal to educate his people in sea-power 
and all it implied for " Deutschtum." They were none too 
keen at first, those stolid Germans, fighting shy of colonial 
dreams and considering an Army of ten million men quite 
enough to sustain their pre tige in the face of an envious 
world. 

But the '■ All- Highest " set many an agency at work to cure 
tills condition of Reiclisver.lrosseiiheit, or "fed-upness" with 
Empire. The German Navy League was founded and 
von Tirpitz and Admiral von Koester, Chief of the League, 
proclaimed the new note : " Our future upon the seas !" 
Also ■'; was once said " The Trident must be our fist !" These 
claf 31C sayings of the Emperor had a pretty obvious meaning, 
wh'.ch was further underlined and exposed in the famous 
" ^^:moirs of Prince Hohenlohe." 

A Record Navy Bill. 

The " Indiscreet Chancellor" harped continually on the fact 
ihat the War-Lord wanted his new navy for " offensive 
purposes" ! According to Hohenlohe, the German Staff were 
thoroughly hostile to Britain as far back as 1890, and 
Von Tirpitz ten years later brought in his famous Navy Bill 
with a demind for ;f 200,000,000. 

' Germany must have," it was declared, in the famous pre- 
amble of the .Act, "a fleet of such strength that a war, even 
d!:;ainst the mightiest luiviil Power, \vo\i\d involve risks threaten- 
ing the supremacy of that Power." We saw in 1914 how far 
this calculation went astray. Gradually the federated States 
were kindled with the vision of a Greater Germany overseas. 
They must expand, and whosoever got in their way would 
suffer. 

.Already they had vast colonies in Fast and South-west 
.Africa. In South America they practised " pacific penetration" 
so skilfully that immense Brazil was alarmed for her 
southern provinces of Kio Grande, Santa Cataiina and 




ADM1K.AL HIPFER 




CiKAKD ADMIKAL 

ALrKEE> 

VON T IRPlTr 



GKAKD ADMIRAL 
HANS VOVr KOETSTEK.. 



Parana. These magnificent 

highlands and other regions in the " Empty Continent " 

were soon marked in red on Berlin maps as " Our Colonies " ! 

Where the Shoe Pinched. 

Clearly a great Navy was necessary to protect these and 
the immense commerce which was growing. It was pointed 
out that geographically Germany was unfortunately situated. 
"The whole of our sea-traffic," explained Dr. Geihart Schoott, 
Director of the Hamburg Naval Observatorv, " has to come 
out of the small triangle, Ems-Heligoland-Sylf, and 95 per 
cent, of it goes through the Straits of Dover, which are com- 
pletely impassable if both shores are hostile. Then in the 
Mediterranean everything is subject to the rulers of 
Gibraltar, who control the whole international trade to 
India, Eastern Asia, East Africa, and Australia. Only at the 
Dardanelles does British power cease." 

So there lay the enemy, and therein lay crying nefd for the 
Fleet. All parties in the Reichstag, including tiie Socialists, 
were in time won over. Frankfort bankers, Westphahan 
ironmasters and the agrarian inteiests — all were gradually 
convinced. Herr Ballin, the shipping Titan of Hamburg, was 
also enlisted as an apostle of the Kaiser's new naval creed, 
though he never expected his ships to be captured or 
interned. 



Statecraft's Biggest Scoop. 

It was the Kaiser who chose all the instruments of his 
propaganda. " I am leading you on to days of glory," was a 
typical flourish to his people by (he self-styled " Admiral of 
the Atlantic"; Germany's voice must be "authoritative as that 
of the Roman Empire." And so on, from the Kruger telegram 
to the Agadir incident in 1911. "Without the consent of 
Germany nothing must happen in any part of the world." 
Always the Master's voice, with Von Tirpitz as his mouth- 
piece in the Reichstag and Von Koester telling the tale to the 
common people. 

The Vulkan Works at Stettin and Hamburg, the Weser at 
Bremen, Tecklenborg's at Geestemuende, the Schichau Yards 
at Elbing and Danzig, Howaldt's, Krupp's, Blohin and Voss's — 
the whole limpire was now roaring with Thor-hammer clang. 
We see the result in Dreadnoughts of the " Kaiser" class, in 
battle-cruisers like the "Hindenburg" and so on, down to 
submarines of great size, and a petrol range which (the 
Germans boast) would take them to New \'ork Harbour and 
home again. 

True, the enemy has copied our designs in battleships of 
each succeeding type, but it were idle tc deny that in 
personnel and material the German navy is a miracle of 
efficiency and power brought into being at the ruler's 
bidding, and that during his own reign. There is little space 
in which to deal with the more dramatic stages, such as the 
acquisition of Heligoland (our most disastrous blunder), 
the construction ot the Kiel Canal, linking the two seas, and 
I he long and subtle war of wits between Von Tirpitz and Sir 
John, now Lord, Fisher. 



30 



ADVliKTlSEMENTS. 



Naval Souvenir. 



For sleeps rest ~C%itain the best 

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Swan's A, 

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/)'i/<r ken John Ti., Iir'ti out for tif itmi, 

iri'f/i yjTu. B. ami Cintif anil Jack, Jim, Ted and Ma^i, 

Thftf'll fftitrn ' frfifU anpoint,^ 

Tho' they're irulked / >r nwfi'i. 

For they all had tt'oud-Milnes Jxxed thin morning. 

Every walker ought to wear ' Wood- 
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Economy, for Comfort, and for Health. 
' Wood-Milnes ' in particular, because 
' Wood-Milnes ' give best and longest 
service, because made from a better 
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To prove how ' Wood-Milnes ' save fatigue, 
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■ 




.^ yi 



Naval Souvenir 



How the Kaiser created the German Navy— continued. 



The FisKer-Tirpitz Due'. 

This last episode is stranger than any tale. How, after 
years of fevered labour and fabulous outlay, the Canal was 
dug, and then Fisher sprang the Dreadnought type upon 
the world. By this stroke the Kiel Canal was for years 
rendered useless for the big ships which were coming. In a 
flash all nations realised that the new all big-gun monster 
was the ship of ships. But the Canal was too narrow and 
too shallow to receive the naval revolution. 

Germany saw what had happened, but she set to work 
with unabated energy to reconstruct her strategic waterway. 
The sixty-mile stretch became once more a vast workshop, 
with 1,400 labourers in night and day toil. The reconstruc- 
tion took over 5 years and cost the Fatherland anothtr 
;f 12,000,000. But it was done. And meanwhile the world 
watched the long race for armaments between Germany and 
ourselves. We saw our Ministers proposing a mutual h:,U 
in the beggar-my-neighbour game. Of course Germany 
scouted the idea — which never 
was a practical one — as she 
scouted the notion of " dis- 
armament " at each confer- 
ence at The Hague. 

In Berlin Bill after Bill was 
quietly la'd before the Reich- 
stag, backed by the Emperor's 
plea that "our supreme dutv 
is 10 strengthen Germany's 
position." Editors were warned 
"on patriotic grounds" to re- 
frain from all comment upon 
Naval budgets, that doubled 
and trebled and quadrupled to 
keep pace with preparations. 
At Court naval officers were 
favoured ostentatiously, Ad- 
miral Prince Henry of Prussia, 
the Kaiser's brother, leading 
the way. Chemists, designers 
of naval ordnance, torpedo 
specialists — and of course 
Count Ferdinand von Zeppelin 
— were all employed in the 
accomplishment of the task. 

A Miracle in Steel. 

What was the result ? The 
second greatest Navy in the 
world, worth nearly 
;f 400,000,000, and quite admir- 
ably manned. And to think 
that in Queen Victoria's day 
German warships were almost 
as scarce as Swiss Admirals, 
and were mostly built in 
England ! Livmg men remem- 
ber the time wtien Germany 
had no Navy at all, and Prince 
Adalbert of Prussia published 
a tentative paiuphlet which he 
styled "A Memorandum con- 
cerning the Establishment of 
a German Navy." 

What are the odds in Britain's 
favour in this tremendous 
matter of sea - power, upon 
which the fate of our Empire 
depends ? They can only be 
stated approximately, lor the 

building on both sides has long been wrapped in the fog of 
war. At the saine time German experts like Captain Persius 
and Count Reventlow warn their people to have no illusions 
about their chances. 

"There is no denying," says the fiery Reventlow, " that 
Britain is to-day— in spite of her losses— actually stronger at 
sea than when war broke out." Briefly put, the odds in our 
favour to-day are in Dreadnought and battle cruisers 70 to 
42, in other cruisers in to 42, in destroyers and torpedo craft 
252 to 178, and in submarines 80 to 30. Thf sc figures take no 
account at all of France's fine Navy, nor Italy's, nor Russia's. 

British Superiority. 

In every single type we out-gun the German, just as our 
Lord Nelsons and King Edwards out-gun the nine " Deutsch 
lands " and " Brauuschweigs." Both sides have acquired ships 
building for other nations. Thus we took two Dreadnoughts 




The Germao Battle Cruiser SEY1>I.ITZ was sighted on June 1 

£oiati south, pursued by British warships. She was badly damaged 

and afterwards sank. 





ordered by Turkey ; and the " Almirante Latorre," laid down 
by Chili (with ten i4in. guns), became the battleship 
" Canada " of our fleet. 

Similarly the Vulkan Company adapted to German uses the 
Greek " Salamis " which was building at Hamburg, we having 
first secured her i4in. guns, which were being supplied from 
America. It takes well over two years to build a capital ship 
of these types, and Britain's resources — private as well as 
State — are overwhelmingly superior to our enemy's, even if 
we add the product of Austrian yards to his output. 
Our six " Queen Elizabeths " are a matchless hoiuogeneous 
squadron, oil-driven, of railroad speed, with stupendous wire- 
wound guns that throw a high explosive shell of 1,950 lb. a 
distance of twelve miles. 

Britain*s Balance of Power. 

But to get full measure of our gun-power as compared with 
the flower of the German Navy, I select the pick of the Dread- 
noughts on both sides, and 
arrive at the following table : — 

British. German. 
15-in. guns 80 16 

14-in. „ 10 3 

i3'5-in. „ 162 — 

In the i2-in. weapon my 
selected squadrons are pretty 
evenly matched, and the Ger- 
mans have 86 11 -in. guns — a 
type we do not carry at all. 
I have no hesitation in say- 
ing that if "The Day" had 
not degenerated into a 
cautf jusly chosen "Afternooji," 
our enormous preponderance 
of 13.5 guns would, in JellioOe's 
phrase to his friend, have 
" finished the business." 

Authorities like " Brassey " 
and "Jane" point out the 
hopelessness of Germany's 
naval "bid," no matter what 
her industrial activities (and 
they have been great) since 
the v/ar began. For ours have 
meanwhile been vastly greater, 
and to our stupendous armada 
one must add the entire 
navies of two other first-class 
Powers. 

" Can it be expected," Von 
Tirpitz (the "Eternal") put 
to his American iuterviewer, 
" that our Fleet — which is 
only about one-third the size 
of Britain's — will seize an 
opportunity unfavourable in 
the military sense and chal- 
lenge Jellicoe for mastery of 
the seas ? " Not a bit of it. 
But there were to be excur- 
sions and alarms, torpedo 
havoc delivered with new 
"round - the - world" sub- 
marines ; pounces by fast 
squadrons, with Zeppelin eyes 
in the sky to see that Jellicoe 
was nowhere near. And here 
and there wily decoys luring 



German Dreadnought Raitleship KAISERIN. which was 
among the enemy ships sunk in the great battle. 



WHSTFAI.liN, one of the great German Battleships 
believed to have been sunk by British gunfire. 



our ships into nests of newly-laid mines. 
But a forthright challenge — No ! 

The ' Mushroom " Fleet. 

W hat do our peerless sailors think of the formidable 
" mushroom " fleet they faced the other day ? They give it 
all due praise, and then make one fatal reset vation: "These 
Germans lack the true sea spirit." Our men regretted that 
grand steel targets worthy of their 15 in. guns and glorious 
traditions were kept from them by Berlin politics and cautious 
strategy. "The Day" — or rather the "Afternoon" — has 
come and gone. What is the result ? Perhaps it is best 
exprc :-e.i by a foreign expert — the veteran Admiral Canevaro, 
a former Italian Minister of Marine, whose opinion carries 
weight the world over: — " Britain's domination of the sea has 
been confirmed." And this domination, won three hundred 
years ago and ever since maintained, is for the Allies an 
enormous factor in the final victory. 



32 



Oi ADVKRTtSKUBirT. Af«0a/ 5m0mir. 



WmmW BvIPVP^P B HP^HWi 




JACK THE GERM KILLER, 

** 1^0N*T run away with the idea that we only 

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supplying you with the soap which makes you happy and healthy. 

Lifebuoy i* an ideal toap for bath and toilet. It cleani and disinfect* at the Mme 
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